Application of D-optimal design for optimizing Parkia biglobosa flour-based cookie
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The aim of the study was to produce cookie by partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with Parkia biglobosa Flour (PBF) and use D-optimal design to enhance the baking time (BT), the cookie diameter (CD), the cookie width (CW) and the cookie hardness (CH). The cookie sensory attributes (taste, aroma, texture, colour and overall likeness) were also evaluated in the study. The results established that it is possible to obtain Parkia biglobosa flour-based cookies that have slightly more sensory acceptability than those made from only wheat flour. In general, cookie acceptability was influenced by the different compositions of the formulation. Increasing the proportion of PBF in the composite flour resulted in an increase in width of the cookie as well as induced a significant increase in the hardness of the cookie. The optimum formulation was WF (208.133 g), PBF (200 g) and MA (241.867 g) with a correspondent BT of 7.9266 min, CD of 161.674 mm, CW of 46.3052 mm and CH values of 40.2973 mm with a desirable value of 0.896. Using these predicted parameters, the experimental results obtained were BT = 7.0 ± 0.10 min, CD = 162.0 ± 2.0 mm, CW = 45.0 ± 1.0 mm and CH = 44.50 ± 2.00 N.
KeywordsWheat flour Parkia biglobosa flour Margarine D-optimal Optimization
Our appreciation goes to the School of Applied Sciences and Arts, Cape Coast Technical University for making all the facilities available for this work. We also show our heartfelt appreciation to the panel who evaluated the sensory parameters of the product.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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