Detection and differentiation of Salmonella serotypes using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique

  • Jaya Sundaram
  • Bosoon Park
  • Arthur HintonJr.
  • Kurt C. Lawrence
  • Yongkuk Kwon
Original Paper


This research was conducted to prove that developed silver biopolymer nanoparticle substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique could detect and differentiate three different serotypes of Salmonella. Nanoparticle was prepared by adding 100 mg of silver nitrate to a 2 % polyvinyl alcohol solution, then adding 1 % trisodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate and produce silver encapsulated biopolymer nanoparticles. Then, nanoparticle was deposited on a stainless steel plate and used as SERS substrate. Fresh cultures of Salmonellatyphimurium, Salmonellaenteritidis and Salmonella infantis were washed and suspended in 10 mL of sterile deionized water. Approximately 5 μl of the bacterial suspensions were placed on the substrate individually and exposed to 785 nm laser excitation. SERS spectral data were recorded between 400 and 1,800 cm−1. SERS signals were collected from 15 different spots on the substrate for each sample. PCA model was developed to classify Salmonella serotypes. PC1 identified 92 % of the variation between the Salmonella serotypes, and PC2 identified 6 % and in total 98 % between the serotypes. Soft independent modeling of class analogies of validation set gave an average correct classification of 92 %. Comparison of the SERS spectra of Salmonella serotypes indicated that both isolates have similar cell walls and cell membrane structures which were identified by spectral regions between 520 and 1,050 cm−1. However, major differences were detected in cellular genetic material and proteins between 1,200 and 1,700 cm−1. SERS with silver biopolymer nanoparticle substrate could be a promising tool in pathogen detection and it would potentially be used to classify them.


Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) Salmonella typhimurium Salmonellaenteritidis Salmonellainfantis Silver biopolymer nanoparticle Substrate 



This work has been partially funded by the National Institute for Hometown Security, USA and Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency, Korea. The authors are gratefully acknowledging their assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (Outside the USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaya Sundaram
    • 1
  • Bosoon Park
    • 1
  • Arthur HintonJr.
    • 1
  • Kurt C. Lawrence
    • 1
  • Yongkuk Kwon
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA, ARS, Russell Research CenterAthensUSA
  2. 2.Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine & Inspection AgencyAnyangKorea

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