Bite Force Performance, Fluctuating Asymmetry and Antisymmetry in the Mandible of Inbred and Outbred Wild-Derived Strains of Mice (Mus musculus domesticus)
- 16 Downloads
Developmental instability, as measured by fluctuating asymmetry is generally considered to increase with genetic and environmental stresses. Few studies have, however, addressed the role of asymmetry in altering organism performance. Here, we measured bite force performance in three strains of inbred and outbred mice derived from wild ancestors. We quantified size and shape directional, and fluctuating asymmetry, as well as inter-individual variation of their mandibles using geometric morphometrics. We also developed a way to estimate shape antisymmetry, to filter it out of the fluctuating asymmetry component. Contrary to our expectations, we found no significant link between bite force and asymmetry levels. Inbreeding did not produce any clear and significant increase or decrease in neither inter-individual variance, nor fluctuating asymmetry. Furthermore, fluctuating asymmetry levels were unrelated to inter-individual variance levels, although these two types of variation affected the same areas of the mandible. We did not highlight any impact of inbreeding depression on bite force. Fluctuating asymmetry was reduced in the mandible, which we argue may be linked to its functional relevance. We found some significant but very reduced antisymmetry possibly linked to lateralization. This lateralization did not relate to any bite force difference. Our results show that neither inbreeding, nor asymmetry (combining fluctuating, directional asymmetry and antisymmetry) significantly affect bite force performance in mice, and that despite affecting the same morphological regions, developmental stability and canalization are independent.
KeywordsAsymmetry Performance Inbreeding Rodents Lateralization
The authors thank Jean-Christophe Auffray, Annie Orth, Josette Catalan, Pascale Chevret, Lionel Hautier, who constituted the fieldwork team to the Orkney Archipelago, where the mice originally came from and Roohollah Siahsarvie who took care of the lab colony until 2014. We are also grateful to Sabrina Renaud for leading the project which allowed to start the colony, and for her important comments on the early versions of the manuscript. Finally, we thank one anonymous reviewer for suggesting several interesting ways to improve the manuscript. This publication is a contribution of the Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier (UMR 5554 – UM + CNRS + IRD) No. ISEM 2018-064. This study was supported by the ANR Project Bigtooth (ANR-11-BSV7-008).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
- Angel, E. H. (1900). Treatment of malocclusion of the teeth and fractures of the maxillae: Angle’s system. Philadelphia: SS White Dental Manufacturing Company.Google Scholar
- Ballard, M. L. (1944). Asymmetry in tooth size: A factor in the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of malocclusion. The Angle Orthodontist, 14(3), 67–70.Google Scholar
- Boell, L., Gregorova, S., Forejt, J., & Tautz, D. (2011). A comparative assessment of mandible shape in a consomic strain panel of the house mouse (Mus musculus)—implications for epistasis and evolvability of quantitative traits. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11(1), 309.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Claude, J. (2008). Morphometrics with R. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Coster, A. (2013). Pedigree: Pedigree functions. R package version 1.4. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=pedigree. Accessed Nov 2017.
- Gonzalez, P. N., Pavlicev, M., Mitteroecker, P., Pardo-Manuel de Villena, F., Spritz, R. A., Marcucio, R. S., & Hallgrímsson, B. (2016). Genetic structure of phenotypic robustness in the collaborative cross mouse diallel panel. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 29(9), 1737–1751.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hallgrímsson, B. (1998). Fluctuating asymmetry in the mammalian skeleton. In M.K. Hecht (Ed.), Evolutionary biology (pp. 187–251). Boston: Springer.Google Scholar
- Kruuk, L. E. B., Slate, J., Pemberton, J. M., & Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2003). Fluctuating asymmetry in a secondary sexual trait: No associations with individual fitness, environmental stress or inbreeding, and no heritability. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 16(1), 101–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lerner, I. M. (1954). Genetic homeostasis. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.Google Scholar
- Levinton, J. S., Judge, M. L., & Kurdziel, J. P. (1995). Functional differences between the major and minor claws of fiddler crabs (Uca, family Ocypodidae, Order Decapoda, Subphylum Crustacea): A result of selection or developmental constraint? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 193(1–2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Logue, S. F., Owen, E. H., Rasmussen, D. L., & Wehner, J. M. (1997). Assessment of locomotor activity, acoustic and tactile startle, and prepulse inhibition of startle in inbred mouse strains and F1 hybrids: Implications of genetic background for single gene and quantitative trait loci analyses. Neuroscience, 80(4), 1075–1086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Milton, C. C., Huynh, B., Batterham, P., Rutherford, S. L., & Hoffmann, A. A. (2003). Quantitative trait symmetry independent of Hsp90 buffering: Distinct modes of genetic canalization and developmental stability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(23), 13396–13401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team. (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
- Rohlf, F. J. (2010). tpsDig v2. 16. New York: Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York, Stony Brook.Google Scholar
- Waddington, C. H. (1957). The strategy of the genes. A discussion of some aspects of theoretical biology. With an appendix by H. Kacser. London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd.Google Scholar
- Zamanlu, M., Khamnei, S., SalariLak, S., Oskoee, S. S., Shakouri, S. K., Houshyar, Y., & Salekzamani, Y. (2012). Chewing side preference in first and all mastication cycles for hard and soft morsels. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 5(4), 326.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar