Anyone with a Long-Face? Craniofacial Evolutionary Allometry (CREA) in a Family of Short-Faced Mammals, the Felidae
- 346 Downloads
Among adults of closely related species, a trend in craniofacial evolutionary allometry (CREA) for larger taxa to be long-faced and smaller ones to have paedomorphic aspects, such as proportionally smaller snouts and larger braincases, has been demonstrated in some mammals and two bird lineages. Nevertheless, whether this may represent a ‘rule’ with few exceptions is still an open question. In this context, Felidae is a particularly interesting family to study because, although its members are short-faced, previous research did suggest relative facial elongation in larger living representatives. Using geometric morphometrics, based on two sets of anatomical landmarks, and traditional morphometrics, for comparing relative lengths of the palate and basicranium, we performed a series of standard and comparative allometric regressions in the Felidae and its two subfamilies. All analyses consistently supported the CREA pattern, with only one minor exception in the geometric morphometric analysis of Pantherinae: the genus Neofelis. With its unusually long canines, Neofelis species seem to have a relatively narrow cranium and long face, despite being smaller than other big cats. In spite of this, overall, our findings strengthen the possibility that the CREA pattern might indeed be a ‘rule’ among mammals, raising questions on the processes behind it and suggesting future directions for its study.
KeywordsAnatomical landmarks Comparative method Evolutionary rule Felinae Geometric morphometrics Pantherinae Regression Shape
We are deeply grateful to all scientists and institutions who made pictures of crania freely available on their websites, and also to Mike Collyer and Dean Adams for help with geomorph, to Marko Djurakic for suggestions on R scripts, and to Jim Rohlf and Liam Revell for their advice on MA regressions. We are in debt also to SYNTHESYS, an EC-funded Project for an integrated European infrastructure for natural history collections, for supporting both the previous study on CREA in placentals and its follow up in 2015.
- Adams, D. C., Rohlf, F. J., & Slice, D. E. (2013). A field comes of age: geometric morphometrics in the 21st century. Hystrix, The Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 24, 7–14.Google Scholar
- Adams, D. C., Collyer, M., Kaliontzopoulu, A., & Sherratt, E. (2016). Geomorph: Geometric morphometric analysis of 2D/3D landmark data. Version 3.0.3, Retrieved https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/geomorph/.
- Cardini, A. (2014). Missing the third dimension in geometric morphometrics: How to assess if 2D images really are a good proxy for 3D structures? Hystrix, The Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 25, 73–81.Google Scholar
- Cardini, A. (2013). Geometric morphometrics. In Encyclopedia of life support systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Paris, Retrieved http://www.eolss.net/.
- Cardini, A. (2016). Why the long face? Evidence for (or against?) a new ‘rule’ in mammalian evolution. 96th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists, Abstract Book.Google Scholar
- Chiozzi, G., Bardelli, G., Ricci, M., De Marchi, G., & Cardini, A. (2014). Just another island dwarf? Phenotypic distinctiveness in the poorly known Soemmerring’s Gazelle, Nanger soemmerringii (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae), of Dahlak Kebir Island. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 111, 603–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Clauss, M., Dittmann, M. T., Müller, D. W. H., Meloro, C., & Codron, D. (2013). Bergmann′s rule in mammals: A cross-species interspecific pattern. Oikos, 122, 1465–1472.Google Scholar
- Garland, T., Midford, P. E., & Ives, A. R. (1999). An introduction to phylogenetically based statistical methods, with a new method for confidence intervals on ancestral values. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 39, 374–388.Google Scholar
- Hammer, O., Harper, D., & Ryan, P. (2001). PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Paleontologia Electron, 4(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
- Klingenberg, C. P. (2013). Visualizations in geometric morphometrics: how to read and how to make graphs showing shape changes. Hystrix, The Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 24, 15–24.Google Scholar
- Marcus, L. F. (1990. Traditional morphometrics. In F. J. Rohlf & F. L. Bookstein (Eds.) Proceedings of the Michigan morphometrics workshop. (pp.77–122). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyGoogle Scholar
- Mitteroecker, P., Gunz, P., & Windhager, S., et al. (2013). A brief review of shape, form, and allometry in geometric morphometrics, with applications to human facial morphology. Hystrix, The Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 24, 59–66.Google Scholar
- Monteiro, L. (2013). Morphometrics and the comparative method: studying the evolution of biological shape. Hystrix, The Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 24, 25–32.Google Scholar
- Nowak, R. M. (2005). Walker’s carnivores of the world. Baltimore: JHU Press.Google Scholar
- Nowell, K. (2002). Revision of the Felidae red list of threatened species. Cat News, 37, 4–6.Google Scholar
- Nowell, K., Jackson, P., et al. (1996). Wild cats: status survey and conservation action plan. Gland: IUCN.Google Scholar
- R Core Team. (2016). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved http://www.R-project.org.
- Rohlf, F. J. (2015). The tps series of software. Hystrix, The Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 26, 9–12.Google Scholar
- Rohlf, F. J., & Slice, D. (1990). Extensions of the procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks. Systematic Biology, 39, 40–59.Google Scholar
- Sanderson, J. G., & Watson, P. (2011). Small wild cats: The animal answer guide. Baltimore: JHU Press.Google Scholar
- Segura, V., Prevosti, F., & Cassini, G. (2013). Cranial ontogeny in the Puma lineage, Puma concolor, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, and Acinonyx jubatus (Carnivora: Felidae): A threedimensional geometric morphometric approach. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 169, 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Segura, V., Cassini, G., & Prevosti, F. (2016). Three-dimensional cranial ontogeny in pantherines (P. leo, P. onca, P. pardus, P. tigris; Carnivora:, Felidae. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society.Google Scholar
- Werdelin, L., Yamaguchi, N., Johnson, W. E., et al. (2010). Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae). Biology and conservation of wild felids. (pp. 59–82) Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal species of the world: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Baltimore: JHU Press.Google Scholar
- Wilting, A., Christiansen, P., Kitchener, A. C., et al. (2011). Geographical variation in and evolutionary history of the Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) with the description of a new subspecies from Borneo. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 58, 317–328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar