Evolutionary Biology

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 324–340 | Cite as

Diversity and Evolution of Body Size in Fishes

Research Article

Abstract

The diversity of body sizes observed among species of a clade is a combined result of microevolutionary processes (i.e. natural selection and genetic drift) that cause size changes within phylogenetic lineages, and macroevolutionary processes (i.e. speciation and extinction) that affect net rates of diversification among lineages. Here we assess trends of size diversity and evolution in fishes (non-tetrapod craniates), employing paleontological, macroecological, and phylogenetic information. Fishes are well suited to studies of size diversity and evolution, as they are highly diverse, representing more than 50% of all living vertebrate species, and many fish taxa are well represented in the fossil record from throughout the Phanerozoic. Further, the frequency distributions of sizes among fish lineages resemble those of most other animal taxa, in being right-skewed, even on a log scale. Using an approach that measures rates of size evolution (in darwins) within a formal phylogenetic framework, we interpret the shape of size distributions as a balance between the competing forces of diversification, pushing taxa away from ancestral values, and of conservation, drawing taxa closer to a central tendency. Within this context we show how non-directional mechanisms of evolution (i.e. passive diffusion processes) can produce an hitherto unperceived bias to larger size, when size is measured on the conventional log scale. These results demonstrate how the interpretation of macroecological datasets can be enriched from an historical perspective, and document the ways in which macroevolutionary and microevolutionary processes may be decoupled in the production of size diversity.

Keywords

Allometry Cope’s rule Darwins Character evolution Evolutionary rates Macroecology Macroevolution Metabolic theory Paleontology Skewness 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank S. Albert, G. Arratia, S. Duke-Sylvester, J. Eisenberg, W. Eschmeyer, W. Fink, D. Goldstein, G. Hanke, P. Janvier, D. Julian, J. Knouft, H. Lillywhite, B. McNab, B. Moon, J. Neigel, J. Nelson, L. Page, D. Pollock, G. Smith, E. Wiley and M. Zelditch for discussions and access to specimens, and J. Brown and J. Gillooly for comments on a previous draft of the manuscript. JSA acknowledges support from U. S. National Science Foundation grants DEB 0741450, 0614334, 0215388.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Louisiana at LafayetteLafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

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