Evolutionary Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 19–36 | Cite as

Comparison of Mandibular Phenotypic and Genetic Integration between Baboon and Mouse

  • Katherine E. Willmore
  • Charles C. Roseman
  • Jeffrey Rogers
  • James M. Cheverud
  • Joan T. Richtsmeier
Research Article


In this study we compare patterns of mandibular integration between mice and baboons using both phenotypic and quantitative genetic data. Specifically, we test how well each species fits with the mosaic model of mandibular integration suggested by Atchley and Hall (Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 66:101–157, 1991) based on developmental modules. We hypothesize that patterns of integration will be similar for mice and baboons and that both species will show strong integration within developmental modules and weaker integration between modules. Corresponding landmark data were collected from the hemi-mandibles of an advanced intercross mouse sample (N = 1239) and mandibles from a baboon sample of known pedigree from the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (N = 430). We used four methods of analysis to quantify and compare the degree of mandibular integration between species including two methods based on a priori assumptions, and two a posteriori analyses. We found that patterns of integration are broadly similar for baboon and mouse mandibles, with both species displaying a modular pattern of integration. While there is a general trend of similarity in integration patterns between species, there were some marked differences. Mice are strongly correlated among distances within the coronoid process and the incisive alveolar region, whereas baboons are strongly integrated within the condylar process. We discuss the potential evolutionary implications of the similar patterns of integration between these species with an emphasis on the role of modularity.


Integration Mandible Mammalian Modularity 

Supplementary material

11692_2009_9056_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine E. Willmore
    • 1
  • Charles C. Roseman
    • 2
  • Jeffrey Rogers
    • 3
  • James M. Cheverud
    • 4
  • Joan T. Richtsmeier
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  3. 3.Department of GeneticsSouthwest Foundation for Biomedical ResearchSan AntonioUSA
  4. 4.Department of Anatomy and NeurobiologyWashington University Medical SchoolSt. LouisUSA

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