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Frontiers of Medicine

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 32–44 | Cite as

Monitoring checkpoint inhibitors: predictive biomarkers in immunotherapy

  • Min Zhang
  • Jingwen Yang
  • Wenjing Hua
  • Zhong Li
  • Zenghui XuEmail author
  • Qijun QianEmail author
Open Access
Review

Abstract

Immunotherapy has become the fourth cancer therapy after surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In particular, immune checkpoint inhibitors are proved to be unprecedentedly in increasing the overall survival rates of patients with refractory cancers, such as advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. However, inhibitor therapies are only effective in a small proportion of patients with problems, such as side effects and high costs. Therefore, doctors urgently need reliable predictive biomarkers for checkpoint inhibitor therapies to choose the optimal therapies. Here, we review the biomarkers that can serve as potential predictors of the outcomes of immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment, including tumor-specific profiles and tumor microenvironment evaluation and other factors.

Keywords

immune checkpoint companion diagnosis PD-L1 tumor mutation burden immune score 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Shanghai Special Fund for Informatization Development (No. 201602037) and Development Initiating Grand of Shanghai Service Community.

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the appropriate credit is given to the original author(s) and the source, and a link is provided to the Creative Commons license, indicating if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ShangHai Cell Therapy Group Co., Ltd.ShanghaiChina

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