Frontiers of Medicine

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 480–489 | Cite as

Immunological and virological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection: implications in vaccine design

  • Yang Gao
  • Wen Tian
  • Xiaoxu HanEmail author
  • Feng GaoEmail author


Superinfection is frequently detected among individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Superinfection occurs at similar frequencies at acute and chronic infection stages but less frequently than primary infection. This observation indicates that the immune responses elicited by natural HIV-1 infection may play a role in curb of superinfection; however, these responses are not sufficiently strong to completely prevent superinfection. Thus, a successful HIV-1 vaccine likely needs to induce more potent and broader immune responses than those elicited by primary infection. On the other hand, potent and broad neutralization responses are more often detected after superinfection than during monoinfection. This suggests that broadly neutralizing antibodies are more likely induced by sequential immunization of multiple different immunogens than with only one form of envelope glycoprotein immunogens. Understanding why the protection from superinfection by immunity induced by primary infection is insufficient and if superinfection can lead to cross-reactive immune responses will be highly informative for HIV-1 vaccine design.


human immunodeficiency virus type I superinfection incidence immune response 


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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31670162 and 81371787), Program for JLU Science and Technology Innovative Research Team (No. 2017TD-05), and a grant from NIAID of NIH (No. AI118571).


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated HospitalChina Medical UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life SciencesJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  3. 3.Department of MedicineDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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