Preventive effect of Shenkang injection against high glucose-induced senescence of renal tubular cells
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Shenkang injection (SKI) is a classic prescription composed of Radix Astragali, rhubarb, Astragalus, Safflower, and Salvia. This treatment was approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China in 1999 for treatment of chronic kidney diseases based on good efficacy and safety. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of SKI against high glucose (HG)-induced renal tubular cell senescence and its underlying mechanism. Primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells were cultured in (1) control medium (control group), medium containing 5 mmol/L glucose; (2) mannitol medium (mannitol group), medium containing 5 mmol/L glucose, and 25 mmol/L mannitol; (3) HG medium (HG group) containing 30 mmol/L glucose; (4) SKI treatment at high (200 mg/L), medium (100 mg/L), or low (50 mg/L) concentration in HG medium (HG + SKI group); or (5) 200 mg/L SKI treatment in control medium (control + SKI group) for 72 h. HG-induced senescent cells showed the emergence of senescence associated heterochromatin foci, up-regulation of P16INK4 and cyclin D1, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, and elevated expression of membrane decoy receptor 2. SKI treatment potently prevented these changes in a dose-independent manner. SKI treatment prevented HG-induced up-regulation of pro-senescence molecule mammalian target of rapamycin and p66Shc and down-regulation of anti-senescence molecules klotho, sirt1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g in renal tubular epithelial cells. SKI may be a novel strategy for protecting against HG-induced renal tubular cell senescence in treatment of diabetic nephropathy.
KeywordsShenkang injection senescence renal tubular epithelial cells diabetic nephropathy
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This study was supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (Nos. 81470962, 81670661, and 81400733); the medical research funding of PLA (No. AWS14C003); and the National Science and Technology Support Plan (No. 2015BAI12B06). We thank Prof. Jianxin Jiang (Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China) for his technical assistance and instructions.
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