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Effects of stress on functional connectivity during verbal processing

Abstract

Effects of stress on functional connectivity (FC) in specific language processing regions of the brain during verbal fluency tasks were explored. Roles of gender and serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR), associated with stress susceptibility, were also examined to understand their effect. Forty-five healthy volunteers (Mean age: 19.6 ± 1.6 years; 28 females) participated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was carried out while participants performed letter and category fluency tasks. These tasks were interposed with the Montreal Imaging Stress Test to induce stress or a no-stress control task. Buccal swabs collected were used to genotype for the presence of polymorphisms on the SLC6A4 gene known to contribute to atypical stress responses. Significant variations in strength of FC were noted between several ROIs, including left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. Overall, males showed regional increases in FC strength over long and short distances during task under stress. Additionally, variability in effects of stress on task performance was associated with effects of stress on FC. Results suggest that long distance FC may be strengthened to compensate for additional cognitive load of the stressor but that specific short distance functional connections may be strengthened in a gender specific manner. Additionally, FC may serve as a marker for effects of stress on performance. This is the first study exploring stress effects on language tasks with imaging markers. Future studies will need to explore stress susceptible populations and establish the role of FC as a marker, with implications for targeted therapeutic interventions.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Katarina Devovic and Jens C. Pruessner for their generous donation of the MIST software. We would also like to thank Nick Hopkins, MD, Alanna Bauer, Katie Huddlestonsmith, and Emily Hover for their contributions to the project.

Funding and disclosures

This research is supported by a grant from the University of Missouri Research Board and the University of Missouri Mission Enhancement Fund.

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Correspondence to David Q. Beversdorf.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, and the applicable revisions at the time of the investigation. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

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Nair, N., Hegarty, J.P., Ferguson, B.J. et al. Effects of stress on functional connectivity during verbal processing. Brain Imaging and Behavior (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00221-5

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Keywords

  • Stress
  • Verbal fluency
  • fMRI
  • Functional connectivity
  • Serotonin transporter
  • Gender