Socioeconomic status in children is associated with spontaneous activity in right superior temporal gyrus
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Socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood is a well-documented life-course health determinant. Despite recent advances on characterizing brain structural variance associated with SES during development, how it influences brain’s functional organization remains elusive. Associations between SES, an fMRI feature of regional spontaneous activity (fractional amplitude of low frequencies fluctuation, fALFF), and behavioral/emotional problems were investigated in a school-based sample of 655 Brazilian children. A voxel-by-voxel approach was applied in order to map brain regions where fALFF was correlated with SES. Based on compelling previous evidence, we hypothesized that fALFF should be associated with SES in areas involved in language processing or cognitive control. Further, we tested if the spontaneous activity in these mapped areas would also correlated with general, internalizing and externalizing problems. SES of children was found to be positively correlated with spontaneous activity in right superior temporal gyrus. In the exploratory analysis, the fALFF of this area was negatively correlated with the expression of internalizing problems. Extending previous behavioral and structural neuroimaging findings, we report an association between SES and the spontaneous activity of a brain area enrolled in the extended language network. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the variability on linguistic environment according to SES lead to different developmental trajectories of functional networks instantiating language.
KeywordsSocioeconomic status fMRI Neuroimaging Children Neurodevelopment
The opinions, hypotheses, conclusions and recommendations of this study are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of the funding agencies. The authors are grateful to Sao Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP (J.R.S. grants 2013/10498-6 and 2013/00506-1; A.P.J. grant 2013/08531-5) for funding this research. This is a study from the National Institutes of Science and Technology for Developmental Psychiatry of Children and Adolescents (INPD) supported by CNPq (573974/2008-0 and 442026/2014-5) and FAPESP (2008/57896-8). P.M.P. receives a fellowship from CNPq-Brazil.
FAPESP (Brazil) grants 2008/57896–8, 2013/10498–6, 2013/00506–1, 2013/08531–5.
CNPq (Brazil) grants 573974/2008–0 and 442026/2014–5.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Dr. Luis Augusto Rohde is supported by grants from CNPq and has been on the speakers’ bureau/advisory board and/or acted as a consultant for Eli-Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis and Shire in the last three years. The ADHD and Juvenile Bipolar Disorder Outpatient Programs he chaired received unrestricted educational and research support from the following pharmaceutical companies in the last three years: Eli-Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, and Shire. He receives authorship royalties from Oxford Press and ArtMed. He has also received travel awards from Shire for his participation in the 2014 APA and 2015 WFADHD meetings. Dr. Rodrigo A. Bressan has been on the speakers’ bureau/advisory board of AstraZeneca, Bristol, Janssen and Lundbeck and has received research grants from Janssen, Eli Lilly, Lundbeck, Novartis, Roche, FAPESP, CNPq, CAPES, Fundação E.J. Safra and Fundação ABAHDS. He is a shareholder of Biomolecular Technology Ltd.
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