Reconfigured functional network dynamics in adult moyamoya disease: a resting-state fMRI study
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Treatment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) is still unclear because of its unveiled neural synchronization. This study introduced a dynamic measurement of connectivity number entropy (CNE) to characterize both spatial and temporal dimensions of network interactions. Fifty-one patients with MMD were recruited (27 with VCI and 24 with intact cognition), as well as 26 normal controls (NCs). Static network properties were first examined to confirm its aberrance in MMD with VCI. Then, the dynamic measurement of CNE was used to detect the deteriorated flexibility of MMD with VCI at global, regional, and network levels. Finally, dynamic reconfiguration of flexible and specialized regions was traced across the three groups. Graph theory analysis indicated that MMD exhibited “small-world” network topology but presented with a deviating pattern from NC as the disease progressed in all topologic metrics of integration, segregation, and small-worldness. Subsequent dynamic analysis showed significant CNE differences among the three groups at both global (p < 0.001) and network levels (default mode network, p = 0.004; executive control network, p = 0.001). Specifically, brain regions related to key aspects of information processing exhibited significant CNE changes across the three groups. Furthermore, CNE values of both flexible and specialized regions changed with impaired cognition. This study not only sheds light on both the static and dynamic organizational principles behind network changes in adult MMD for the first time, but also provides a new methodologic viewpoint to acquire more knowledge of its pathophysiology and treatment direction.
KeywordsFunctional flexibility Moyamoya disease Network topology Resting-state fMRI Vascular cognitive impairment
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81771237, 81801155 & 11105062); the National Key Research and Development Program (No. SQ2016YFSF110141); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. lzujbky-2015-119); the Natural Science Foundation and Major Basic Research Program of Shanghai (No. 16JC1420100); the “Dawn” Program of Shanghai Education Commission (No. 16SG02); and the Scientific Research Project of Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (No. 2016QD082).
Compliance with ethical standards
This manuscript has been read and approved by all authors, who acknowledge due care in ensuring the integrity of the work. All authors have made substantial contributions to the design, collection, analysis and/or interpretation of data, and many have contributed to the writing and intellectual content of the article.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, and were conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.
All participants gave written informed consent after totally understanding the purposes of our study.
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