Electrophysiological indices of aberrant error-processing in adults with ADHD: a new region of interest
- 277 Downloads
Deficits in error-processing are postulated in core symptoms of ADHD. Our goal was to investigate the neurophysiological basis of abnormal error-processing and adaptive adjustments in ADHD, and examine whether error-related alterations extend beyond traditional Regions of Interest (ROIs), particularly to those involved in adaptive adjustments, such as the Salience Network system. We obtained event-related potentials (ERPs) during a Go/NoGo task from 22 adult-ADHD patients and 29 matched healthy controls using a high-density 256-electrode array. Error-related ERPs with error-negativity (ERN) and error-positivity (Pe) served as probes of error-processing. In ADHD patients both ERN and Pe were significantly reduced, and the reduction was associated with core psychopathological symptoms. The ERP-attenuation was prominent not only at traditional ROI-electrodes but across many other brain areas, with a distinctive subset of group-differences and symptom-correlations manifested at temporo-parietal sites, with right-lateralization. Source-localization uncovered two neural-sources for the error-related ERPs: one in the cingulate cortex near midline, which was present in both groups; and one in the right insular cortex, which was present only in the control group. The neural patterns of impairments may be the result of coexisting deficits in the dorsal midline error-processing brain network involved in “error-processing proper” and the right-lateralized temporo-parietal salience network involved in the evaluation of significance of the error-signals. Our source-localization findings potentially identify a missing link between the previously reported structural change, i.e., reduced insular volume, and the well-established behavioral deficits in ADHD.
KeywordsADHD Error-processing ERN Pe Response-locked ERP
The authors would like to acknowledge the help of Bálint Szuromi and Attila Pulay for their participation in the recruitment and clinical examination of the subjects.
Compliance with ethical standards
Supported by the Hungarian National Brain Research Program (KTIA_NAP_13–1–2013-0001 project).
Conflict of interest
Authors P. Czobor, B. Kakuszi, K. Németh, L. Balogh, S. Papp, L. Tombor and I. Bitter declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, and the applicable revisions at the time of the investigation. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
- Balogh, L., & Czobor, P. (2014). Post-Error Slowing in Patients With ADHD: A Meta-Analysis. Disord: J.Atten.Google Scholar
- Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2007). The International Affective Picture System in the study of emotion and attention. In J. A. Coan & J. B. B. Allen (Eds.), Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment (pp. 29–46). Oxford University Press: Oxford.Google Scholar
- Conners, C. K. (1999). Clinical use of rating scales in diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46(857–70), vi.Google Scholar
- Erhardt, D., Epstein, J. N., Conners, C. K., Parker, J. D. A., & Sitarenios, G. (1999). Self-ratings of ADHD symptomas in auts II: Reliability, validity, and diagnostic sensitivity. Journal of Attention Disorders, 153–158.Google Scholar
- Geburek, A. J., Rist, F., Gediga, G., Stroux, D., & Pedersen, A. (2013). Electrophysiological indices of error monitoring in juvenile and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--a meta-analytic appraisal. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 87, 349–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Groom, M. J., Cahill, J. D., Bates, A. T., Jackson, G. M., Calton, T. G., Liddle, P. F., et al. (2010). Electrophysiological indices of abnormal error-processing in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 66–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harsay, H. A., Spaan, M., Wijnen, J. G., Ridderinkhof, K. R. (2012). Error awareness and salience processing in the oddball task: shared neural mechanisms. Front Hum. Neurosci. 6, 246.Google Scholar
- Herrmann, M. J., Mader, K., Schreppel, T., Jacob, C., Heine, M., Boreatti-Hummer, A., et al. (2010). Neural correlates of performance monitoring in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 11, 457–464.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoechstetter, K., Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (2010). BESA research tutorial 4: Distributed source imaging.Google Scholar
- Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2008). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. In Techical Report A-8. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.Google Scholar
- Luck, S. J. (2014). An Introduction to the Event-Related Potential Technique (2nd ed.). MIT Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
- McLoughlin, G., Palmer, J. A., Rijsdijk, F., & Makeig, S. (2014). Genetic overlap between evoked frontocentral theta-band phase variability, reaction time variability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a twin study. Biological Psychiatry, 75, 238–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saville, C. W., Feige, B., Kluckert, C., Bender, S., Biscaldi, M., Berger, A., et al. (2015). Increased reaction time variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as a response-related phenomenon: evidence from single-trial event-related potentials. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 801–813.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Talairach.org (2015). http://talairach.org/daemon.html (last accessed: 08/30/2015).
- Ullsperger, M., Harsay, H. A., Wessel, J. R., Ridderinkhof, K. R. (2010). Conscious perception of errors and its relation to the anterior insula. Brain Struct. Funct. 214, 5-6, 629--643.Google Scholar