Brain Imaging and Behavior

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 552–564 | Cite as

Non redundant functional brain connectivity in schizophrenia

  • Raymond SalvadorEmail author
  • Ramón Landin-Romero
  • Maria Anguera
  • Erick J. Canales-Rodríguez
  • Joaquim Radua
  • Amalia Guerrero-Pedraza
  • Salvador Sarró
  • Teresa Maristany
  • Peter J. McKenna
  • Edith Pomarol-Clotet
Original Research


Schizophrenia is considered a disorder of abnormal brain connectivity. Although whole brain maps of averaged bivariate voxel correlations have been successfully applied to study connectivity abnormalities in schizophrenia these maps do not adequately explore the multivariate nature of brain connectivity. Here we adapt a novel method for high-dimensional regression (supervised principal component regression) to estimate brain maps of multivariate non redundant connectivity (NRC) from resting functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data of 116 patients with schizophrenia and 122 matched controls. Disorder related differences in NRC involved caudate hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity of several cortical areas such as the dorsal cingulate, the cuneus and the right postcentral cortex. These abnormalities were coupled with abnormalities in the amplitude of signal fluctuations and, to a minor extent, with differences in the dimensionality of connectivity patterns as quantified by the number of supervised principal components. Second level seed correlation analyses linked the observed abnormalities to an additional set of brain regions relevant to schizophrenia such as the thalamus and the temporal cortex. The non redundant connectivity maps proposed here are a new tool that will complement the information provided by other already available voxel based whole brain connectivity measures.


Schizophrenia NRC Supervised principal component regression fMRI GBC ALFF 



This work was supported by the Catalonian Government (2014SGR1573), several grants from the Plan Nacional de I + D + i and co-funded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III-Subdirección General de Evaluación y Fomento de la Investigación and the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER): Miguel Servet Research Contracts (CP10/00596 to EP-C, CP13/00018 to RS and CP14/00041 to JR) and Research Project Grants (PI14/00292, PI14/01691, PI14/01148 and PI14/01151).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Author Raymond Salvador, Author Ramón Landín-Romero, Author Maria Anguera, Author Erick J. Canales-Rodríguez, Author Joaquim Raduà, Author Amalia Guerrero-Pedraza, Author Salvador Sarró, Author Teresa Maristany, Author Peter J. McKenna and Author Edith Pomarol-Clotet declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, and the applicable revisions at the time of the investigation. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

Supplementary material

11682_2016_9535_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (115 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 115 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Salvador
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ramón Landin-Romero
    • 1
    • 3
  • Maria Anguera
    • 1
    • 2
  • Erick J. Canales-Rodríguez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joaquim Radua
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Amalia Guerrero-Pedraza
    • 5
  • Salvador Sarró
    • 1
    • 2
  • Teresa Maristany
    • 6
  • Peter J. McKenna
    • 1
    • 2
  • Edith Pomarol-Clotet
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalàries Research FoundationBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación Biomedica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM)MadridSpain
  3. 3.ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its DisordersNeuroscience Research AustraliaSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Institute of PsychiatryKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  5. 5.Hospital Benito Menni – CASMSant Boi de LlobregatSpain
  6. 6.Hospital Sant Joan de DéuPasseig de Sant Joan de DéuEsplugues de LlobregatSpain

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