Diffuse inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS) extends beyond focal lesion sites, affecting interconnected regions; however, little is known about the impact of an individual lesion affecting major white matter (WM) pathways on brain functional connectivity (FC). Here, we longitudinally assessed the effects of acute and chronic lesions on FC in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients using resting-state fMRI. 45 MRI data sets from 9 RRMS patients were recorded using 3T MR scanner over 5 time points at 8 week intervals. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence (n = 5; MS+) and absence (n = 4; MS-) of a lesion at a predilection site for MS. While FC levels were found not to fluctuate significantly in the overall patient group, the MS+ patient group showed increased FC in the contralateral cuneus and precuneus and in the ipsilateral precuneus (p < 0.01, corrected). This can be interpreted as the recruitment of intact cortical regions to compensate for tissue damage. During the study, one patient developed an acute WM lesion in the left posterior periventricular space. A marked increase in FC in the right pre-, post-central gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, the left cuneus, the vermis and the posterior and anterior lobes of the cerebellum was noted following the clinical relapse, which gradually decreased in subsequent follow-ups, suggesting short-term functional reorganization during the acute phase. This strongly suggests that the lesion-related network changes observed in patients with chronic lesions occur as a result of reorganization processes following the initial appearance of an acute lesion.
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This study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
This work has been supported by grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG; CRC-TR 128/B5 to Drs. Deichmann and Zipp).
Conflict of interest
None of the authors declare any relevant conflicts of interest.
Frauke Zipp and Sergiu Groppa contributed equally to this work.
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Droby, A., Yuen, K.S.L., Muthuraman, M. et al. Changes in brain functional connectivity patterns are driven by an individual lesion in MS: a resting-state fMRI study. Brain Imaging and Behavior 10, 1117–1126 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-015-9476-3
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