Abnormal prefrontal cortex resting state functional connectivity and severity of internet gaming disorder
- 1k Downloads
Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) among adolescents has become an important public concern and gained more and more attention internationally. Recent studies focused on IGD and revealed brain abnormalities in the IGD group, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the role of PFC-striatal circuits in pathology of IGD remains unknown. Twenty-five adolescents with IGD and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in our study. Voxel-based morphometric (VBM) and functional connectivity analysis were employed to investigate the abnormal structural and resting-state properties of several frontal regions in individuals with online gaming addiction. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, IGD subjects showed significant decreased gray matter volume in PFC regions including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right supplementary motor area (SMA) after controlling for age and gender effects. We chose these regions as the seeding areas for the resting-state analysis and found that IGD subjects showed decreased functional connectivity between several cortical regions and our seeds, including the insula, and temporal and occipital cortices. Moreover, significant decreased functional connectivity between some important subcortical regions, i.e., dorsal striatum, pallidum, and thalamus, and our seeds were found in the IGD group and some of those changes were associated with the severity of IGD. Our results revealed the involvement of several PFC regions and related PFC-striatal circuits in the process of IGD and suggested IGD may share similar neural mechanisms with substance dependence at the circuit level.
KeywordsGray matter volume Functional connectivity Internet gaming disorder Prefrontal cortex-striatal circuits
This paper is supported by the Project for the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (973) under Grant nos. 2014CB543203, 2011CB707700, 2012CB518501, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant nos. 81401478, 81401488, 81227901, 81271644, 81271546, 81101036, 81101108, 31200837, 81301281, the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China under Grant no. 2014JQ4118, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under the Grant nos. 8002-72125760, 8002-72135767, 8002-72145760, the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia under Grant no. 2012MS0908. General Financial Grant the China Post- doctoral Science Foundation under Grant no. 2014 M552416. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
- Brier, M. R., Thomas, J. B., Snyder, A. Z., Benzinger, T. L., Zhang, D., Raichle, M. E., et al. (2012). Loss of intranetwork and internetwork resting state functional connections with Alzheimer’s disease progression. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(26), 8890–8899.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Dimitri, C., Megan, M., Lauren, J., Mon, M., & Chuan, Z. (2011) Problematic internet usage in US college students: a pilot study. BMC Medicine, 9.Google Scholar
- Ko, C. H., Liu, G. C., Yen, J. Y., Chen, C. Y., Yen, C. F., & Chen, C. S. (2011). Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects. Addiction Biology, 18(3), 559–569.Google Scholar
- Ko, C.-H., Liu, G.-C., Yen, J.-Y., Yen, C.-F., Chen, C.-S., & Lin, W.-C. (2012). The brain activations for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among subjects comorbid with Internet gaming addiction and nicotine dependence. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(4), 486–493.Google Scholar
- Meda, S. A., Gill, A., Stevens, M. C., Lorenzoni, R. P., Glahn, D. C., Calhoun, V. D., et al. (2012). Differences in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging functional network connectivity between schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar probands and their unaffected first-degree relatives. Biological Psychiatry, 71(10), 881–889.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Young, K. S. (1998a). Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of internet addiction--and a winning strategy for recovery. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Yuan, K., Qin, W., Yu, D., Bi, Y., Xing, L., Jin, C., et al. (2015). Core brain networks interactions and cognitive control in internet gaming disorder individuals in late adolescence/early adulthood. Brain Structure and Function. doi: 10.1007/s00429-014-0982-7.