MRI scanner environment increases pain perception in a standardized nociceptive paradigm
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used in neuroscientific studies to investigate neural correlates of perception and higher cognitive functions. Early on, the MR-scanning procedure itself has been identified to create discomfort and anxiety in some individuals, which may influence task performance and perception. The present study analyzed behavioral differences in pain intensity ratings obtained in two distinct situations: MR environment and laboratory setting. Within our longitudinal study design twenty healthy volunteers were exposed daily to an identical paradigm consisting of 60 repeated noxious heat stimuli (46 °C) on 21 consecutive days. After each block of ten stimuli, participants were prompted to rate pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). On days 1, 8, 14, and 21 ratings scores were obtained during a functional imaging scan, whereas on the remaining days the sessions were conducted in a laboratory. It has come to our attention that pain intensity ratings acquired in MR environment were significantly higher than behavioral data collected in the lab setting. Given that the stimuli were standardized and no task or distraction confounded the ratings, it is likely that the attentional focus on noxious stimulation was identical in both conditions. It seems that the highly artificial scanner environment as such is sufficient to increase awareness/alertness. Given that salience rather than pure nociceptive input has been suggested to explain functional imaging results in painful conditions, these findings highlight concerns regarding the comparability of behavioral data assembled across inconsistent settings.
KeywordsPain MRI environment Arousal Attention
This work has been supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG), SFB 936/A5.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interests.
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