Alternation learning in pathological gamblers: an fMRI Study
We have previously reported that pathological gamblers have impaired performance on the Stroop color word naming task, go-no-go task and speed accuracy tradeoff performance, tasks used to assess executive function and interference control. The aim of the present neuroimaging study was to explore the relationship between frontal cortex function and gambling severity in pathological gamblers.
Materials and methods
Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to estimate brain activity of ten male medication-free pathological gamblers during performance of an alternation learning task. Performance of this task has been shown to depend on the function of regions in the frontal cortex.
The executive functions needed to perform the alternation learning task were expressed as brain activation in lateral and medial frontal as well as parietal and occipital regions. By correlating the level of local brain activation to task performance, parietal regions and lateral frontal and orbitofrontal regions were demonstrated. A higher score in SOGS was associated with intrusion on the task-specific activation in the left hemisphere, to some extant in parietal regions and even more pronouncedly in left frontal and orbitofrontal regions.
Our preliminary data suggests that pathological gambling may be characterized by specific neuro-cognitive changes related to the frontal cortex.
KeywordsPathological gambling Alternation learning task Orbitofrontal cortex Functional MRI
Declaration of interests
- Bohn, A. S. C., Deckersback, T., Keuthen, N. J., Jenike, M. A., Tuschen-Caffier, B., & Wilhem, S. (2005). Visuospacial abilities, memory, and executive functioning in trichotillomania and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychology Press, 27, 385–389.Google Scholar
- Calhoun, V. D., Altschul, D., McGinty, V., et al. (2004). Alcohol intoxication effects on visual perception: An fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 21, 15–25.Google Scholar
- Dannon, P. N., Lowengrub, K., Aizer, A., & Kotler, M. (2006). Pathological gambling: Comorbid psychiatric diagnosis in patients and their families. Israel Journal of Psychiatry & related Sciences, 43, 88–92.Google Scholar
- Goudriaan, A. E., Oosterlaan, J; De Beurs, E; Van den Brink, W. (2006).Neurocognitive deficits in pathological gambling and related disorders. Paperpresented at the European Congress of Neuropsychiatry, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Goudriaan AE, de Ruiter MB, van den Brink W, et al. (2010). Brain activation patterns associated with cue reactivity and craving in abstinent problem gamblers, heavy smokers and healthy controls: an fMRI study. Addict Biol (in press).Google Scholar
- Smith, A. T., Singh, K. D., Blasters, J. H. (2007). A comment on the severity of the effects on non-white noise in fMRI time series. Neuroimage 36, 282–288.Google Scholar
- Zohar, J., Hermesh, H., Weizman, A., Voet, H., & Gross-Isseroff, R. (1999). Orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder? I. Alternation learning in obsessive-compulsive disorder: male-female comparisons. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 9(5), 407–413.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar