Brain Imaging and Behavior

, Volume 4, Issue 3–4, pp 199–211 | Cite as

Sustained cortical and subcortical neuromodulation induced by electrical tongue stimulation

  • Joseph C. Wildenberg
  • Mitchell E. Tyler
  • Yuri P. Danilov
  • Kurt A. Kaczmarek
  • Mary E. Meyerand
Original Research

Abstract

This pilot study aimed to show that information-free stimulation of the tongue can improve behavioral measures and induce sustained neuromodulation of the balance-processing network in individuals with balance dysfunction. Twelve balance-impaired subjects received one week of cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM). Before and after the week of stimulation, postural sway and fMRI activation were measured to monitor susceptibility to optic flow. Nine normal controls also underwent the postural sway and fMRI tests but did not receive CN-NINM. Results showed that before CN-NINM balance-impaired subjects swayed more than normal controls as expected (p ≤ 0.05), and that overall sway and susceptibility to optic flow decreased after CN-NINM (p ≤ 0.005 & p ≤ 0.05). fMRI showed upregulation of visual sensitivity to optic flow in balance-impaired subjects that decreased after CN-NINM. A region of interest analysis indicated that CN-NINM may induce neuromodulation by increasing activity within the dorsal pons (p ≤ 0.01).

Keywords

fMRI Optic flow Neuromodulation Balance disorders Brainstem Plasticity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph C. Wildenberg
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Mitchell E. Tyler
    • 3
  • Yuri P. Danilov
    • 3
  • Kurt A. Kaczmarek
    • 3
  • Mary E. Meyerand
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Neuroscience Training ProgramUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Medical Scientist Training ProgramUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Orthopedics and RehabilitationUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Medical PhysicsUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  5. 5.1122o Wisconsin Institutes for Medical ResearchMadisonUSA

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