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Brain Imaging and Behavior

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 141–154 | Cite as

The Nature of Processing Speed Deficits in Traumatic Brain Injury: is Less Brain More?

  • Frank G. HillaryEmail author
  • Helen M. Genova
  • John D. Medaglia
  • Neal M. Fitzpatrick
  • Kathy S. Chiou
  • Britney M. Wardecker
  • Robert G. FranklinJr.
  • Jianli Wang
  • John DeLuca
Article

Abstract

The cognitive constructs working memory (WM) and processing speed are fundamental components to general intellectual functioning in humans and highly susceptible to disruption following neurological insult. Much of the work to date examining speeded working memory deficits in clinical samples using functional imaging has demonstrated recruitment of network areas including prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). What remains unclear is the nature of this neural recruitment. The goal of this study was to isolate the neural networks distinct from those evident in healthy adults and to determine if reaction time (RT) reliably predicts observable between-group differences. The current data indicate that much of the neural recruitment in TBI during a speeded visual scanning task is positively correlated with RT. These data indicate that recruitment in PFC during tasks of rapid information processing are at least partially attributable to normal recruitment of PFC support resources during slowed task processing.

Keywords

TBI fMRI Reorganization Working memory Processing speed 

Supplementary material

11682_2010_9094_MOESM1_ESM.doc (96 kb)
Supplementary Tables S1, S2 Group data presenting “peak” activation for canonical HRF analysis illustrated in Fig. 1 a,b. Note: “Region” indicates peak activation for Brodmann’s areas. For Regions where more than one peak was present in any specific Brodmann’s area and gyrus, only the most significant peak is reported. (DOC 95 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank G. Hillary
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
    Email author
  • Helen M. Genova
    • 3
  • John D. Medaglia
    • 1
  • Neal M. Fitzpatrick
    • 4
  • Kathy S. Chiou
    • 1
  • Britney M. Wardecker
    • 1
  • Robert G. FranklinJr.
    • 1
  • Jianli Wang
    • 4
  • John DeLuca
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentPennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyHershey Medical CenterHersheyUSA
  3. 3.Kessler Foundation Research CenterWest OrangeUSA
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyHershey Medical CenterHersheyUSA
  5. 5.New Jersey Medical SchoolUniversity of Medicine and Dentistry at New JerseyNewarkUSA
  6. 6.Psychology DepartmentPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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