Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 243–255 | Cite as

Early recovery process and restoration planning of burned pine forests in central eastern Korea

  • Ji Hong An
  • Chi Hong Lim
  • Yong Chan Cho
  • Chang Seok LeeEmail author
Original Paper


In central eastern Korea, there has been a continued effort to sustain pine forests because of their value for wood and mushroom production, as well as for other resources. Through the analysis of previously burned areas, we clarified the effects of fire on vegetation dynamics of pine forests by measuring changes in species composition, population structure, and the growth rates of major tree species. Vegetation analysis was conducted on a series of 100 m2 plots established in Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold. & Zucc.) and Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. Ex Ledeb.) forests situated in three different topographic positions on slopes where fire severity varied. We confirmed that most pine trees will succumb to even a surface fire, whereas oak may be killed following high intensity or infrequent fires but will sprout and become dominant. Complete protection from fire favors other, more shade-tolerant deciduous hardwoods. Different restoration plans apply, based on observed vegetation responses for each topographic zone. Near the ridge top, where pine seed sources are most limited, it may be necessary to restore pine forests by planting and to control competing shrubs and herbs. At the mountain foot, where exotic species and species modified by hybridization have invaded aggressively, restoration that involves the introduction of natural vegetation is required. Mid-slope sites, where pine has been replaced by natural vegetation dominated by Mongolian oak, do not require any form of restorative treatment.


Vegetation succession Vegetation type Fire severity Fire disturbance Landscape structure 



We thank Dr. Kermit Cromack J., Department of Forest Science at Oregon State University, for his helpful comments on this manuscript.


  1. Aber JD (1987) Restored forests and the identification of critical factors in species-site interactions. In: Jordan WE, Gilpin ME, Aber JD (eds) Restoration ecology: a synthetic approach to ecological research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 241–250Google Scholar
  2. Aronson J, Floret C, Le floc’h E, Ovalle C, Pontainer P (1993) Restoration and rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid lands. I. A review from the South. Restor Ecol 1:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbour MG, Burk JH, Pitts WD, Gilliam FS, Schwartz MW (1999) Terrestrial plant ecology, 3rd edn. The Benjamin/Cummings Co, Menlo ParkGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton AM (1999) Pines versus oaks: effects of fire on the composition of Madrean forestsin Arizona. For Ecol Manag 120:143–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berger JJ (1993) Ecological restoration and non-indigenous plant species: a review. Restor Ecol 1:74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blake JG, Schuette B (2000) Restoration of an oak forest in east-central Missouri: early effects of prescribed burning on woody vegetation. For Ecol Manag 139:109–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boerner REJ (1983) Nutrient dynamics of vegetation and detritus following two intensities of fire in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Oecologia 59:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boerner REJ, Forman RTT (1982) Hydrologic and mineral budgets of New Jersey Pine Barrens upland forests following two intensities of fire. Can J For Res 12:503–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradshaw AD (1983) The reconstruction of ecosystems. J Appl Ecol 20:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Braun-Blanquet J (1964) Pflanzensoziologie, 3rd edn. Springer, WienCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burrows CJ (1990) Processes of vegetation change. Unwin Hyman, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choung Y, Lee BC, Cho JH, Lee KS, Jang IS, Kim SH, Hong SK, Jung HC, Choung HL (2004) Forest responses to the large-scale east coast fires in Korea. Ecol Res 19:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Connell JH, Slatyer RO (1977) Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. Am Nat 111:1119–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Forestry Research Institute (1996) Ecological report on forest fires at Kosung. Forestry Research Institute, Seoul (in Korean) Google Scholar
  15. Fujihara M (1996) Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in western Japan. J Veg Sci 7:729–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gutsell SL, Johnson EA (2007) Wildfire and Tree population processes. In: Johnson EA, Miyanishi K (eds) Plant disturbance ecology: the process and the response. Academic Press, New York, pp 441–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hill MO (1979) DECORANA—a FORTRAN program for detrended correspondence analysis and reciprocal averaging. Ecology and systematics. Connell University, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill MO, Gauch HG (1980) Detrended ordination analysis: an improved ordination technique. Vegetatio 42:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holzner W, Werger MJA, Ikushima I (1983) Man’s impact on vegetation. Dr. W. Junk, The HagueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hough M (1984) City form and natural processes. Croom Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Howell EA, Harrington JA, Glass SB (2012) Introduction to restoration ecology. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  22. Institute SAS (2001) PROC user’s manual, version, 6th edn. SAS Institute, CaryGoogle Scholar
  23. Isagi Y, Nakagoshi N (1990) A Markov approach for describing post-fire succession of vegetation. Ecol Res 5:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson EA (1995) Fire and vegetation dynamics: studies from the North American Boreal forest. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  25. Kennard DK, Gould K, Putz FE, Fredericksen TS, Morales F (2002) Effect of disturbance intensity on regeneration mechanisms in a tropical dry forest. For Ecol Manag 162:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klaudisova A, Osbornova J (1990) Abandoned fields in the region. In: Osbornova J, Kovarova M, Leps J, Prach K (eds) Succession and abandoned fields: studies in central Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, vol 15. Geobotany. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, pp 7–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Korea Forest Service (2004) Statistical analysis of forest fire in Korea. Korea Forest Service, Seoul (in Korean) Google Scholar
  28. Korea Metrological Administration (2011) Annual climatological report. Korea Metrological Administration, Seoul (in Korean) Google Scholar
  29. Koyama N (1943) Light und Bodenwasser in ihrer Wirkung als Grundfaktor auf Die Kiefernnaturverjüngung. Forestry Experiment Station of the Government-general of Korea, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  30. Lavoie L, Sirois L (1998) Vegetative changes caused by recent fires in the northern boreal forest of eastern Canada. J Veg Sci 9:483–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee CS (1989) A study on the succession of pine forests damaged by pine gall midge. PhD thesis, Seoul National Univ, Seoul (in Korean with English abstract)Google Scholar
  32. Lee CS (1995a) Disturbance regime of the Pinus densiflora forest in Korea. Korean J Ecol 18:179–188 (in Korean with English abstract) Google Scholar
  33. Lee CS (1995b) Regeneration process after disturbance of the Pinus densiflora forest in Korea. Korean J Ecol 18:189–201 (in Korean with English abstract) Google Scholar
  34. Lee CS (1995c) Disturbance of forest and its regeneration. In: Kim JH (ed) Advanced ecology. Gyomunsa, Seoul, pp 385–423 (in Korean) Google Scholar
  35. Lee CS (2015) Role and task of restoration ecology in changing environment. Natl Acad Sci 5:481–527 (in Korean) Google Scholar
  36. Lee CS, Hong SK (1998) Changes of landscape pattern and vegetation structure in rural area disturbed by fire. Korean J Ecol 21:389–399 (in Korean with English abstract) Google Scholar
  37. Lee CS, Hong SK (2001) Landscape ecological perspectives in the structure and dynamics of fire-disturbed vegetation in a rural landscape, eastern Korea. In: van der Zee D, Zonneveld IS (eds) Landscape ecology applied in land evaluation, development and conservation, vol 81. Some worldwide selected examples. ITC Publication, IALE Publication MM-1, Cannon Hill, pp 81–94Google Scholar
  38. Lee CS, Kim HE (1989) Ecological studies for natural regeneration by selfsown of Pinus densiflora forest. J Agric Sci Chungbuk Natl Univ 7:100–109 (in Korean with English abstract) Google Scholar
  39. Lee CS, Kim JH, Yi H, You YH (2004a) Seedling establishment and generation of Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) forests in Korea in relation to soil moisture. For Ecol Manag 199:423–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee CS, Lee KS, Hwangbo JK, You YH, Kim JH (2004b) Selection of tolerant plants and their arrangement to restore a forest ecosystem damaged by air pollution. Water Air Soil Pollut 156:251–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee CS, Moon JS, Cho YC (2007) Effects of soil amelioration and tree planting on restoration of an air-pollution damaged forest in south Korea. Water Air Soil Pollut 179:239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lloyd PS (1971) Effects of fire on the chemical status of herbaceous communities of the Derbyshire Dales. J Ecol 5:1120–1127Google Scholar
  43. Lloyd PS (1972) Effects of fire on a Derbyshire grassland community. Ecology 60:915–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MacMahon JA (1987) Disturbed lands and ecological theory: an essay about mutualistic associations. In: Jordan WR, Gilpin ME, Aber JD (eds) Restoration ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 221–240Google Scholar
  45. Malanson GP (1987) Diversity, stability, and resilience: effects of fire regime. In: Trabaud L (ed) The role of fire in ecological systems. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 49–63Google Scholar
  46. McDonell MJ, Pickett STA (1990) Ecosystem structure and function along urban–rural gradients: an unexploited opportunity for ecology. Ecology 71:1232–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mun HT, Choung YS (1996) Effects of forests fire on soil nutrients in pine forests in Kosong, Kangwon Province. Korean J Ecol 20:375–383 (in Korean with English abstract) Google Scholar
  48. Mun HT, Choung YS (1997) Species composition and nutrient absorption by plants in the immediate postfire year. Korean J Ecol 21:27–33 (in Korean with English abstract) Google Scholar
  49. Nakagoshi N (1984) Fire and forest vegetation. In: Miyawaki A (ed) Vegetation of Japan, Kinki. Shibundo, Tokyo, pp 402–410 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  50. Nakagoshi N, Touyama Y (1995) Disturbances and recovery processes of a pine forest ecosystem in a fire regime. J Int Dev Coop 1:43–59Google Scholar
  51. Nakagoshi N, Nehira K, Takahashi F (1987) The role of fire in pine forests of Japan. In: Trabaud L (ed) The role of fire in ecological systems. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 91–119Google Scholar
  52. Oliver CD, Larson BC (1990) Forest stand dynamics. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Pyne SJ, Andrew PL, Laven RD (1996) Introduction to wildland fire, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Raison JJ (1979) Modification of the soil environment by vegetation fires, with particular references to nitrogen transformations: a review. Plant Soil 51:73–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Romme WH (1982) Fire and landscape diversity in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. Ecol Monogr 52:199–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rundel PW (1981) Fire as an ecological factor. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, vol 12A. New series. Physiological plant ecology I. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  57. Ryan KC (2002) Dynamic interactions between forest structure and fire behavior in boreal ecosystems. Silva Fennica 36:13–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. SERI and PWG (2004) The SER international primer on ecological restoration. & Tucson: Society for Ecological Restoration International. Accessed 15 July 2016
  59. Stock WD, Lewis OAM (1986) Soil nitrogen and the role of fire as a mineralizing agent in a South African coastal fynbos ecosystem. J Ecol 74:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Trabaud L (1987) Fire and survival traits of plants. In: Trabaud L (ed) The role of fire in ecological systems. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 65–89Google Scholar
  61. Trabund L, Gatti JF (1996) Effects of fire frequency on plant communities and landscape pattern in the Massif des Aspres (southern France). Landsc Ecol 11:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Turner MG, Bratton SP (1987) Fire, grazing, and the landscape heterogeneity of a Georgia Barrier Island. In: Turner MG (ed) Landscape heterogeneity and disturbance. Springer, New York, pp 85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Turner M, Hargrove W, Gardner R, Romme W (1994) Effects of fire on landscape heterogeneity in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. J Veg Sci 5:731–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Walstad JD, Radonsevic SR, Sanberg DV (1990) Natural and prescribed fire in pacific northwest forests. Oregon State University Press, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  65. Whelan RJ (1995) The ecology of fire. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. White PS, Pickett STA (1985) Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: An introduction. In: Pickett STA, White PS (eds) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, Orlando, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  67. Yim YJ, Kira T (1975) Distribution of forest vegetation and climate in Korean Peninsula I. Distribution of some indices of thermal climate. Jpn J Ecol 25:77–88Google Scholar
  68. Yim YJ, Kira T (1976) Distribution of forest vegetation and climate in Korean Peninsula II. Distribution of climatic humidity/aridity. Jpn J Ecol 26:157–164Google Scholar
  69. Yim YJ, Kira T (1977) Distribution of forest vegetation and climate in Korean Peninsula III. Distribution of tree species along the thermal gradient. Jpn J Ecol 27:177–189Google Scholar
  70. Zedler PH (2007) Fire effects on grasslands. In: Johnson EA, Miyanishi K (eds) Plant disturbance ecology: the process and the response. Academic Press, New York, pp 397–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zonneveld IS (1989) The land unit—a fundamental concept in landscape ecology, and its application. Landsc Ecol 3:67–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ji Hong An
    • 1
  • Chi Hong Lim
    • 1
  • Yong Chan Cho
    • 2
  • Chang Seok Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Bio and Environmental TechnologySeoul Women’s UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Division of Plant ConservationKorea National ArboretumPocheonKorea

Personalised recommendations