Diversity of the endophytic filamentous fungal leaf community at different development stages of eucalyptus
Fungal endophytic species inhabiting the leaves of eucalypts are capable of utilising leaf sugars and can influence both plant growth and health. Endophytic fungal symbionts can use simple soluble sugars in leaves as their main carbon source. This study set out to determine the diversity and distribution of the endophytic filamentous fungal leaf community in the hybrid Eucalyptus urograndis due to its economic importance. The fungal leaf community was characterised using denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and correlated with levels of leaf nutrients and sugars throughout plant development. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed the presence of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota phyla. Fourteen species and three genera of filamentous fungi were identified, and the population structure was affected by the plant developmental stage. Levels of K, Cu, N and Mn influenced communities from the clonal garden, whereas leaves in the field had higher glucose, fructose and sucrose. Many fungi were found to be specific to a certain development stages: Diplomitoporus crustulinus, Podosphaera tridactyla and Aspergillus restrictus to the clonal garden stage; Chaetomella acutiseta and Ascotricha chartarum to the shading stage; Erratomyces patelii and Saxomyces sp. to the shading output stage; Lepidostroma sp. and Saxomyces sp. to the dispatch stage; and Mycosphaerella populicola to the field stage. Teratosphaeria toledana and Teratosphaeria acidotherma were found at more than one developmental stage. Cladosporium sp. and Rhodosporidium fluviale colonized and persisted in plants at the dispatch and field stages. This is the first report of P. tridactyla, A. restrictus, E. patelii, Saxomyces and Lepidostroma sp. as endophytes in eucalipt.
KeywordsDiversity 18S rRNA Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) Sequencing
The authors thank the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior–CAPES) and Celulose NipoBrasileira (CENIBRA) for financial support and the Minas Gerais State Research Foundation (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais–FAPEMIG) for the grant provided to P. S. B. Miguel. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the Laboratório de Ecologia Microbiana (LEM), of the Microbiology Department at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, for operational support.
- Arnold AE (2005) Diversity and ecology of fungal endophytes in tropical forests. In: Deshmukh S (ed) Current trends in mycological research. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 49–68Google Scholar
- Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982) Total nitrogen. In: Page AL (ed) Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 595–624Google Scholar
- Chambergo FS, Bonaccorsi ED, Ferreira AJ, Ramos AS, Ferreira JR, Abrahao-Neto J, Farah JP, El-Dorry H (2002) Elucidation of the metabolic fate of glucose in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and cDNA microarrays. J Biol Chem 277:13983–13988CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Duong LM, Jeewon R, Lumyong S, Hyde KD (2006) DGGE coupledwith ribosomal DNA gene phylogenies reveal uncharacterizedfungal phylotypes. Fungal Divers 23:121–138Google Scholar
- FAO (2016) State of the world’s forests 2016. Forests and agriculture: land-use challenges and opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4:9Google Scholar
- Minitab I (2006) MINITAB statistical software. Version: Release. 15Google Scholar
- Rayner ADM, Boddy L (1986) Population structure and the infection biology of wood-decay fungi in living trees. Adv Plant Pathol 5:119–160Google Scholar
- Rho H, Kim SH (2017) Endophyte effects on photosynthesis and water use of plant hosts: a meta-analysis. In: Doty S (ed) Functional importance of the plant microbiome. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
- Schneider H (2007) Métodos de análise filogenética: um guia prático [Methods for phylogenetic analysis: a practical guide]. Holos Editora e Sociedade Brasileira de Genética, Ribeirão PretoGoogle Scholar
- Systat Software, Inc (2008) Sigma plot for windows, version 11.0Google Scholar