Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 29, Issue 6, pp 1591–1599 | Cite as

Short-term effects of cleaning-respacing in a silver fir-dominated stand in Romania

  • Valeriu-Norocel Nicolescu
  • Cornelia HerneaEmail author
  • Diana-Cristina Șimon
  • Matei-Nicolae Ciolan
  • Monica-Elena Barti
  • Hendrik Schubert
  • Edina Borbely
Original Paper


This paper discusses the early silviculture of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), a major softwood in Romania covering more than 294,000 ha. Three research plots (DRP1, DRP2 and DRP3) were established in a 25-year-old silver fir-dominated stand in May 2012. In DRP1 and DRP2, heavy cleaning-respacing were carried out while DRP3 was kept as a control. After the treatments in 2012, the plots had stocking between 1470 trees ha−1 (DRP2) and 10,030 trees ha−1 (DRP3), basal areas between 11.8 m2 ha−1 (DRP2) and 31.6 m2 ha−1 (DRP3). The average diameters were between 5.7 cm (DRP3) and 9.6 cm (DRP2). Measurements in September 2016 confirmed the rapid response of silver fir to cleaning-respacing. The best results in average diameter increments and basal area between 2012 and 2016 were in DRP2: 3.7 cm (36.4%) and 7.7 m2 ha−1 (85.0%) respectively. The largest diameter trees in 2012 were the best growers, and a strong linear correlation between the initial diameter of the remaining trees and their increment was established. Natural dieback of trees occurred only in DRP3 (8.6%). The selection of crop trees based on the vigour, quality, and spacing criteria during cleaning-respacing was possible as individuals stood out in terms of vigour and early diameter growth. An issue encountered in DRP1 and DRP2 was the occurrence of epicormic shoots, especially on less vigorous individuals with small crowns. However, four years after cleaning-respacing, these branches are small and do not significantly affect the wood quality.


Abies alba Tending operations Stocking Basal area Increment 



We thank Dr. Aurica Pătrăucean (LIGNUM Forest District) and numerous undergraduate and postgraduate students from the Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering (Brasov) for the field work. We also wish to express our thanks to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive criticisms.

Supplementary material

11676_2017_567_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1560 kb)


  1. Allegrini Ch (2010) Choosing future crop trees. Forêts de France 531:33–34 (in French) Google Scholar
  2. Allegrini C, Depierre A (coord.) (2000) Selection of future crop trees. Thise: CRPF de Franche-Comté, ONF, Besancon (in French) Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2008) Management plan of working unit I Nemira, LIGNUM Forest District. EcoForest, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  4. Barbu CO (2012) Impact of white mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. abietis) infection on needles and crown morphology of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici 40(2):152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbu I, Curcă M, Barbu C, Ichim V (2016) Adaptation of Romanian forests to climate change. Editura Silvică, Voluntari (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  6. Bastien Y (2000) Silviculture of softwood species. Ecole Nationale du Génie Rural, des Eaux et des Forêts, Centre de Nancy, Nancy (in French) Google Scholar
  7. Bastien Y (2001) Future crop trees. Artificial pruning. Ecole Nationale du Génie Rural, des Eaux et des Forêts, Centre de Nancy, Nancy (in French) Google Scholar
  8. Bončina A, Ficko A, Klopčič M, Matijašić D, Poljanec A (2009) Management of silver fir in Slovenia. Zbornik gosdarstva lesarstva 90:43–56 (in Slovenian) Google Scholar
  9. Brus DJ, Hengeveld GM, Walvoort DJJ, Goedhart PW, Heidema AH, Nabuurs GJ, Gunia K (2012) Statistical mapping of tree species over Europe. Eur J For Res 131(1):145–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. CMDPA (1986) Technical norms for tending operations 2. Centrul de material didactic şi propagandă agricolă, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  11. Constantinescu N (1976) Tending of forest stands, vol II. Editura Ceres, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  12. Demarcq P, Bastien Y, Gauquelin X, Lacombe E, Remoussard P (1996) Silviculture of silver fir. Bull Tech ONF 31:71–78 (in French) Google Scholar
  13. Gazol A, Camarero JJ, Gutiérrez E, Popa I, Andreu-Hayles L, Motta R, Nola P, Ribas M, Sangüesa-Barreda G, Urbinati C, Carrer M (2015) Distinct effects of climate warming on populations of silver fir (Abies alba) across Europe. J Biogeogr 42(6):1150–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Georgescu CC, Petrescu M, Ene M, Ștefănescu M, Miron V (1957) Forest diseases and pests. Biology and control. București, Editura Agro-Silvică de Stat (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  15. Gilbertson RL, Ryvarden L (1987) North American Polypores, vol 2. Fungiflora, Oslo, p 885Google Scholar
  16. Giurgiu V (1967) Study of growth in forest stands. Editura Agro-Silvică, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  17. Giurgiu V, Drăghiciu D (2004) Mathematic-auxological models and yield tables for forest stands. Editura Ceres, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  18. Haralamb A (1967) Culture of forest species, 3rd edn. Editura Agro-Silvică, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  19. Hemery G, Simblet S (2014) The new silva. a discourse of forest & Orchard trees for the twenty-first century. Bloomsbury, London, New Delhi, New York, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  20. Kelty MJ (1992) Comparative productivity of monocultures and mixed-species stands. In: Kelty MJ, Larson BC, Oliver CD (eds) The ecology and silviculture of mixed-species forests. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp 125–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kerr G, Stokes V, Peace A, Jinks R (2015) Effects of provenance on the survival, growth and stem form of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Britain. Eur J For Res 134:349–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lebourgeois F, Gomez N, Pinto P, Mérian P (2013) Mixed stands reduce Abies alba tree-ring sensitivity to summer drought in the Vosges mountains, western Europe. For Ecol Manag 303:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Linares JC, Camarero JJ (2012) Growth patterns and sensitivity to climate predict silver fir decline in the Spanish Pyrenees. Eur J For Res 131:1001–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MAPPM (2000a) Technical norms for tending operations 2. Ministerul Apelor, Pădurilor şi Protecţiei Mediului, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  25. MAPPM (2000b) Technical norms for the choice and application of silvicultural systems 3. Ministerul Apelor, Pădurilor şi Protecţiei Mediului, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  26. Marcu O (2005) Forest Phytopathology. Editura Silvodel, Brașov (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  27. Mauri A, de Rigo D, Caudullo G (2016) Abies alba in Europe: distribution habitat usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz J, de Rigo D, Caudullo G, Houston Durrant T, Mauri A (eds) European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, pp 48–49Google Scholar
  28. Mazza G, Gallucci V, Manetti MC, Urbinati C (2014) Climate-growth relationship of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in marginal populations of Central Italy. Dendrochronologia 32:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meier AR, Saunders MM, Michler CH (2012) Epicormic buds in trees: a review of bud establishment, development and dormancy release. Tree Physiol 32:565–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Negulescu E, Săvulescu A (1957) Dendrology. Editura Agro-Silvică de Stat, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  31. Negulescu EG, Săvulescu A (1965) Dendrology, 2nd edn. Editura Agro-Silvică, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  32. Oliva J, Colinas C (2007) Decline of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) stands in the Spanish Pyrenees: role of management, historic dynamics and pathogens. For Ecol Manag 252:84–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Petrescu L (1971) Guidelines for tending of forest stands. Editura Ceres, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  34. Pretzsch H, Biber P, Uhl E, Dauber E (2015) Long-term stand dynamics of managed spruce-fir-beech mountain forests in Central Europe: structure, productivity and regeneration success. Forestry 88:407–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rameau JC, Mansion D, Dumé G, Timbal J, Lecointe A, Dupont P, Keller R (1989) French Forest Flora. 1 Plains and hills. Institut pour le développement forestier, Paris, Ecole nationale du génie rural, des eaux et des forêts, Nancy (in French) Google Scholar
  36. Riou-Nivert P (1996) Conifers: cognition and recognition, vol I. Institut pour le développement forestier, Paris (in French) Google Scholar
  37. Sangüesa-Barreda G, Camarero JJ, Oliva J, Montes F, Gazol A (2015) Past logging, drought and pathogens interact and contribute to forest dieback. Agric For Meteorol 208:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Savill P (2013) The silviculture of trees used in British forestry, 2nd edn. CABI, Wallingford and Boston, p 280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Șofletea N, Curtu L (2007) Dendrology. Editura Universității “Transilvania”, Brașov (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  40. Solla A, Sánchez-Miranda A, Camarero JJ (2006) Radial-growth and wood anatomical changes in Abies alba infected by Melampsorella caryophyllacearum: a dendroecological assessment of fungal damage. Ann For Sci 63:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stănescu V (1979) Dendrology. Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  42. Stănescu V, Șofletea N, Popescu O (1997) Woody forest flora of Romania. Editura Ceres, București (in Romanian) Google Scholar
  43. StatSoft Inc (2004) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 7.
  44. Vallet P, Pérot T (2011) Silver fir stand productivity is enhanced when mixed with Norway spruce: evidence based on large-scale inventory data and a generic modelling approach. J Veg Sci 22:932–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. von Gadow KV, Hui GY (1999) Modelling forest development. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, p 213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vospernik S, Sterba H (2015) Do competition-density rule and self-thinning rule agree? Ann For Sci 72:379–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wolf H (2003) EUFORGEN Technical Guidelines for genetic conservation and use for silver fir (Abies alba). International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, p 6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valeriu-Norocel Nicolescu
    • 1
  • Cornelia Hernea
    • 2
    Email author
  • Diana-Cristina Șimon
    • 3
  • Matei-Nicolae Ciolan
    • 1
  • Monica-Elena Barti
    • 1
  • Hendrik Schubert
    • 4
  • Edina Borbely
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Silviculture and Forest EngineeringTransylvania University of BrașovBrașovRomania
  2. 2.Faculty of Horticulture and ForestryBanat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “King Michael I of Romania” from TimișoaraTimișoaraRomania
  3. 3.Bârzava Forest DistrictBârzavaRomania
  4. 4.LIGNUM Forest DistrictDărmăneștiRomania

Personalised recommendations