Applications and roles of the CRISPR system in genome editing of plants
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Genome editing is a valuable tool to target specific DNA sequences for mutagenesis in the genomes of microbes, plants, and animals. Although different genome editing technologies are available, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, which utilizes engineered endonucleases to generate a double-stranded DNA break (DSB) in the target DNA region and subsequently stimulates site-specific mutagenesis through DNA repair machineries, is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool for elucidating mechanisms of protection from plant viruses, plant disease resistance, and gene functions in basic and applied research. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the CRISPR system associated genome editing in plants by focusing on application of this technology in model plants, crop plants, fruit plants, woody plants and grasses and discuss how genome editing associated with the CRISPR system can provide insights into genome modifications and functional genomics in plants.
KeywordsCRISPR system Double-stranded DNA break Functional genomics Genome editing Genome modifications
The authors are grateful to Dr. Luo, Dr. Whitley, Dr. Lauressergues, Dr. Omidbakhshfard, and Dr. Page for their critical reading and valuable suggestions during the preparation of this manuscript.
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