Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 215–223 | Cite as

Non-timber forest products and household incomes in Bonga forest area, southwestern Ethiopia

Original Paper


We identified the major non-timber forest products (NTFPs), their contributions to household incomes, and the determinants influencing engagement of households in using NTFPs in the Bonga forest area of Gimbo and Decha Districts of Kaffa Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Six Kebeles (the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia) were sampled from two Districts and 150 households were randomly sampled using proportional-to-size techniques based on the number of farm households in each Kebele. Secondary data were collected from and focus group discussions were conducted with selected individuals. The farmers diversified livelihood activities such as crop and livestock production, collection of NTFPs and off-farm activities. NTFPs played a significant role in household incomes. The contribution from the major NTFPs (forest coffee, honey and spices) accounted for 47% of annual household income. The role of NTFPs was influenced by a number of factors. Variables including being native to the area (+), total land holding (+), possession of livestock (+) and access to extension (+) significantly affected forest coffee production. Age of household head (−), land holding (+) and distance of the market from the residence (−) significantly affected honey production. Size of landholding (+), distance to market (−) and distance of the forest from the residence (−) were significant variables determining the NTFP incomes derived by the households. Attention is needed in the design of policies and strategies for the well-being of households to the contribution of NTFPs to local incomes and the variables that affect the collection of NTFPs must be considered.


Bonga forest determinants of NTFP collection household income livelihood activities NTFPs 


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Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bonga Agricultural Research CenterBongaEthiopia
  2. 2.Addis Ababa Science and Technology UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia
  3. 3.Department of Crop Science and ProductionBotswana College of AgricultureGaboroneBotswana

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