Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 29–36 | Cite as

Governance of forest conservation and co-benefits for Bangladesh under changing climate

  • Ronju Ahammad
  • Mohammed Kamal Hossain
  • Panna Husnain
Review Paper


We focused on key aspects of forest governance for biodiversity conservation in implementing new climate change policies. The national forest institutions must be adaptive to identify the existing pitfalls of prior conservation policies to take advantage of new climate change policies. Strengthening roles and technical capacity of national institutions for systematic biodiversity monitoring and carbon stock assessment is required in developing and least developed countries. Community participation needs careful analysis to ensure equitable access of particular social groups to local decision-making processes and to sustain optional livelihoods. The livelihood options around forest reserves or protected areas must be taken into account to enhance forest-based adaptation.


REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) conservation institution livelihood protected areas 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agrawal A, Chhatre A, Hardin R. 2008. Changing governance of the world’s forests. Science, 320(5882): 1460–1462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad BC, Hashim MHI, Abdullah J, Jaafar J. 2012. Stakeholders’ perception on buffer zone potential implementation: a preliminary study of TasekBera, M’sia. Procedia — Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50: 582–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arts B, Buizer M. 2009. Forests, discourses, institutions: A discursive-institutional analysis of global forest governance. Forest Policy and Economics, 11; 340–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkes F, Kofinas PG, Chapin SF. 2009. Conservation, community, and livelihoods: sustaining, renewing, and adapting cultural connections to the land. In: Chapin FS, Kofinas PG, Folke C (eds.), Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship. Philadelphia, PA: Springer Science Business Media, LLC. pp. 131–147.Google Scholar
  5. Berkes F. 2009. Evolution of co-management: Role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. Journal of Environmental Management, 90: 1692–1702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BFD (Bangladesh Forest Department). 2012. Land and forest area. Available at: [Last access 10.06.2012].Google Scholar
  7. Blom B, Sunderland T, Murdiyarso D. 2010. Getting REDD to work locally: lessons learned from integrated conservation and development projects. Environmental Science & Policy, 13(2): 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolland LP, Ellis EA, Guariguata MR, Mallén IR, Yankelevich SN, García VR. 2012. Community managed forests and forest protected areas: An assessment of their conservation effectiveness across the tropics. Forest Ecology and Management, 268: 6–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bond I, Gran GM, Kanounnikoff WS, Hazlewood P, Wunder S, Angelsen A. 2009. Incentives to sustain forest ecosystem services: a review and lessons for REDD. Natural Resource Issues No. 16. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK, with CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia, and World Resources Institute, Washington D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  10. Boutin S, Haughland DL, Schieck J, Herbers J, Bayne E. 2009. A new approach to forest biodiversity monitoring in Canada. Forest Ecology and Management, 258(S): 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown D, Seymour F, Peskett L. 2008. How do we achieve REDD co-benefits and avoid doing harm? In: Angelsen, A (ed.), Moving Ahead with REDD. Bogor: CIFOR, pp. 107–118.Google Scholar
  12. Cerena MM, Soltau SK. 2006. Poverty risks and national parks: policy issues in conservation and resettlement. World Development, 34(10): 1808–1830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chave J, Condit R, Aguilar S, Hernandez A, Lao S, Perez R. 2004. Error propagation and scaling for tropical forest biomass estimates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 359(1443): 409–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chhatre A, Agrawal A. 2008. Forest commons and local enforcement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(36): 13186–13191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Donato DC, Kauffman JB, Murdiyarso D, Kurnianto S, Stidham M, Kanninen M. 2011. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geoscience, 4: 293–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ebeling J, Yasue M. 2009. The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(2): 1145–1153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. FAO. 2010. Global forest resources assessment: country report Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  18. Folke C, Carpenter S, Walker B, Scheffer M, Elmqvist T, Gunderson L, Holling CS. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 35: 557–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. GoB. 2004. National biodiversity strategy and action plan for Bangladesh. Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  20. GoB. 2011. The Nishorgo network strategy and action plan: collaborative management of Bangladesh’s Natural Protected Areas, draft discussion. Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  21. Griffiths T. 2008. Seeing “REDD”? Forests, climate change mitigation and the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities. Forest Peoples Programme, UK. p. 63.Google Scholar
  22. Hannah L, Midgley G, Andelman S, Araújo M, Hughes G, Meyer EM, Pearson R, Williams P. 2007. Protected area needs in a changing climate. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(3): 131–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoang MH, Do TH, Pham MT, Noordwijk MV, Minang PA. 2012. Benefit distribution across scales to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in Vietnam. Land Use Policy, 31: 48–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hole DG, Willis SG, Pain DJ, Fishpool LD, Butchart SHM, Collingham YC, Rahbek C, Huntley B. 2009. Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network. Ecology Letters, 12(5): 420–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Houghton RA. 2012. Carbon emissions and the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4(6): 597–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kanowski JP, McDermott LC, Cashore WB. 2011. Implementing REDD+: lessons from analysis of forest governance. Environmental Science and Policy, 14(2): 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kharouba H M, Kerr JT. 2010. Just passing through: Global change and the conservation of biodiversity in protected areas. Biological Conservation, 143(5): 1094–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Larson AM. 2011. Forest tenure reform in the age of climate change: Lessons for REDD+. Global Environmental Change, 21(2); 540–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lele S, Wilshusen P, Brockington D, Seidler R, Bawa K. 2010. Beyond exclusion: alternative approaches to biodiversity conservation in the developing tropics. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2: 94–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lyster R. 2011. REDD+, transparency, participation and resource rights: the role of law. Environmental Science and Policy, 14: 118–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MA. 2005. Millennium ecosystem assessment. In: Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Washington D.C.: Island Press.Google Scholar
  32. Mustafa EMM. 2002. A review of forest policy trends in Bangladesh: Bangladesh forest policy trends. In: Policy Trend Report 2002. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, pp. 114–121.Google Scholar
  33. Nandy P, Ahammad R. 2012. Navigating mangrove resilience through the ecosystem based adaptation: lessons from Bangladesh. In: Macintosh DJ, Mahindapala R, Markopoulos M (eds.), Sharing Lessons on Mangrove Restoration. Bangkok, Thailand: Mangroves for the Future and Gland. Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 243–254.Google Scholar
  34. O’Connor D. 2008. Governing the global commons: Linking carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation in tropical forests. Global Environmental Change, 18(3): 368–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ostrom E. 2003. How types of goods and property rights jointly affect collective action. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 15(3): 239–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pelletier J, Kirby RK, Potvin C. 2012. Significance of carbon stock uncertainties on emission reductions from deforestationand forest degradation in developing countries. Forest Policy and Economics, 24: 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Persha L, Fischer H, Chhatre A, Agrawal A, Benson C. 2010. Biodiversity conservation and livelihoods in human-dominated landscapes: Forest commons in South Asia. Biological Conservation, 143(12): 2918–2925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pfund JL, Koponen PJ, O’Connor T, Boffa MJ, Noordwijk VM, Sorg PG, Lafortezza R. 2008. Biodiversity conservation and sustainable livelihoods in tropical forest landscapes. In: Lafortezza R, Chen J, Sanesi G, Crow TR (eds.), Patterns and Processes in Forest Landscapes: Multiple Use and Sustainable Management. Philadelphia, PA: Springer Science Business Media, LLC.Google Scholar
  39. Phelps J, Webb EL, Agrawal A. 2010. Does REDD+ threaten to recentralize forest governance? Science, 328: 312–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Robinson GJ. 2011. Ethical pluralism, pragmatism, and sustainability in conservation practice. Biological Conservation, 144(3): 958–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Salafsky N, Wollenberg E. 2000. Linking livelihoods and conservation: A conceptual framework and scale for assessing the integration of human needs and biodiversity. World Development, 28(8): 1421–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2001. Assessment, conservation and sustainable use of forest biodiversity. CBD Technical Series no. 3, p. 130.Google Scholar
  43. Stringer LC, Dougill AJ, Thomas AD, Spracklen DV, Chesterman S, Ifejika CS, Rueff H, Riddell M, Williams M, Beedy T, Abson DJ, Klintenberg P, Syampungani S, Powell P, Palmer AR, Seely MK, Mkwambisi DD, Falcao M, Sitoe A, Ross S, Kopolo G. 2012. Challenges and opportunities in linking carbon sequestration, livelihoods and ecosystem service provision in drylands. Environmental Science and Policy, 19–20: 121–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thompson I, Mackey B, McNulty S, Mosseler A. 2009. Forest resilience, biodiversity, and climate change. A synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. Technical Series no. 43, p. 67.Google Scholar
  45. Thompson MC, Baruah M, Carr ER. 2011. Seeing REDD+ as a project of environmental governance. Environmental Science and Policy, 14(2): 100–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thoms CA. 2008. Community control of resources and the challenge of improving local livelihoods: A critical examination of community forestry in Nepal. Geoforum, 39(3): 1452–1465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Werland S. 2009. Global forest governance-Bringing forestry science (back) in. Forest Policy and Economics, 11: 446–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Woinarski CJZ. 2010. Biodiversity conservation in tropical forest landscapes of Oceania. Biological Conservation, 143(10): 2385–2394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Young RO, King LA, Schroeder H. 2008. Institutions and Environmental change: principal findings, application and research frontiers. Summary for Policy Makers. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronju Ahammad
    • 1
  • Mohammed Kamal Hossain
    • 2
  • Panna Husnain
    • 3
  1. 1.Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation ProjectBhan Bhaban, Agargaon, DhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Institute of Forestry & Environmental SciencesUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh
  3. 3.Urban PlannerSolaiman NagarKhulnaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations