Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 115–122 | Cite as

Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in different forest tree species of Hazarikhil forest of Chittagong, Bangladesh

Original Paper

Abstract

Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and AM fungal spores were studied in the roots and rhizosphere soils of Acacia catechu (L.f). Wild., A. mangium Willd, Anthocephala cadamba Miq., Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb., Chickrassia tabularis A. Juss., Swietenia macrophylla King., Tectona grandis L. from plantations; Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth., A. falcataria L., Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker., Hydnocarpus kurzii (King.) Warb., Heynea trijuga Roxb., Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers., Messua ferrea Linn., Podocarpus nerifolia Don., Swintonia floribunda Griff., Syzygium fruticosum (Roxb.) DC., S. grandis (Wt.) Wal. from forest and nursery seedlings of A. polystachya, A. chaplasha, Gmelina arborea Roxb. and S. cuminii (L.) Skeels from Hazarikhil forest, Chittagong of Bangladesh. Roots were stained in aniline blue and rhizosphere soils were assessed by wet sieving and decanting methods. The range of AM colonization varied significantly from 10%–73% in the plantations samples. Maximum colonization was observed in A. mangium (73%) and minimum colonization was observed in C. tabularis (10%). Vesicular colonization was recorded 15%–67% in five plantation tree species. The highest was in A. cadamba (67%) and the lowest was in T. grandis; A. chaplasha and C. tabularis showed no vesicular colonization. Arbuscular colonization was recorded 12%–60% in four plantation tree species. The highest was in A. mangium (60%) and the lowest was in A. cadamba. Roots of Artocarpus chaplasha, C. tabularis and T. grandis showed no arbuscular colonization. Among 12 forest tree species, nine tree species showed AM colonization. The highest was in A. falcataria (62%) and the lowest was in S. fruticosum (10%). Significant variation in vesicular colonization was recorded in seven forest tree species. The highest was in H. trijuga (52%) and the lowest was in L. speciosa (18%). Hydnocarpus kurzii, M. ferrea, P. nerifolia S. fruticosum and S. grandis showed no vesicular colonization. Arbuscular colonization was recorded in seven forest tree species. The highest was in A. falcataria (60%) and the lowest was in A. procera (10%). All the nursery seedlings showed AM colonization and the range was 10%–73%. Vesicules were recorded in G. arborea (40%) and S. cumini (40%). Arbuscular colonization was recorded in G. arborea (100%) and S. cumini (100%). Spore population was recorded 77–432/100 g dry soils, 80–276/100 g dry soils, and 75–153/100g dry soils in plantation, forest and nursery, respectively. Glomus and Acaulospora were dominant genera among the six AM fungi recorded. Significantly positive correlation was observed between AM colonization and AM fungal spore population in Hazarikhil plantation tree species, forest tree species and nursery tree seedlings. The present study showed the biodiversity of root colonization and AM fungi are active in nutrient cycling, survivals and seedling establishment of the plants in the Hazarikhil forest, plantation and nursery.

Keywords

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi root colonization spore population 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott LK, Robson AD. 1991. Factors influencing the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza. Agric Ecosyst Environ, 35: 121–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander IJ, Ahmed N, See LS. 1992. The role of mycorrhizas in the regeneration of some Malaysian forest trees. Phil Trans R Sr Lond B, 335: 379–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Garni SM, Daft MJ. 1990. Occurrence and effectiveness of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural soils from Saudi Arabia. Biol Agric Hortic, 7: 69–80.Google Scholar
  4. Allen MF, Boosalis MG. 1983. Effects of two species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on drought tolerance of winter wheat. New Phytol, 93: 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Auge RM, Schekel KA, Wample RL. 1987a. Leaf water and carbohydrate status of VA mycorrhizal rose exposed to draught stress. Plant Soil, 99: 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Auge RM, Schekel KA, Wample RL. 1987b. Rose leaf elasticity in response to mycorrhizal colonization and draught acclimation. Physiol Plant, 70: 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baylis GTS. 1967. Experiments on ecological significance of phycomycetous mycorrhizas. New Phytol, 66: 231–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bethlenfalvay GJ, Thomas RS, Dekessian S, Brown MS, Ames RN. 1988. Mycorrhizae in stressed environments: Effects on plant growth, endophyte development, soil stability and soil water. In: Whitehead, E.E (eds), Arid lands, today and tomorrow. Boulder: Westview Press, pp. 1015–1029.Google Scholar
  9. Bever JD, Schultz PA, Pringle A, Morton JB. 2001. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: more diverse than meets the eye, and the ecological tale of why. Bio-Science, 51: 923–931.Google Scholar
  10. Bever JD. 2002. Negative feedback within a mutualism; host specific growth of mycorrhizal fungi reduces plant benefit. Proc R Soc London Biol Sci, 269: 2595–2601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhatia NP, Sundari K, Adholeya A. 1996. Diversity and selective dominance of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In: Mukerji KG (ed) Concepts in Mycorrhizal Research. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.133–178.Google Scholar
  12. Brundrett M. 1991. Mycorrhizas in Natural Ecosystems. Adv Ecol Res, 21: 271–315.Google Scholar
  13. Brown ME, Carr GR. 1984. Interaction between Azotobacter chroococcum and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza and their effects on plant growth. J Appl Bacteriol, 56: 429–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burrows RL, Pfleger FL. 2002a. Host responses to AMF from plots differing in plant diversity. Plant Soil, 240: 169–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burrows RL, Pfleger FL. 2002b. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi respond to increasing plant diversity. Can J Bot, 80: 120–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Castelli JP, Casper BB. 2003. Intraspecific AM fungal variation contributes to plant-fungal feedback in a serpentine grassland. Ecology, 84: 323–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chulan A, Omar M. 1991. Incidence of VAM spores in some Malaysian soils. Pertanika, 14: 133–137.Google Scholar
  18. Clark RB, Zeto SK. 2000. Mineral acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. J Plant Nutri, 23: 867–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cruz C, Green JJ, Watson CA, Wilson F, Martins-Loucao. 2004. Functional aspects of root architecture and mycorrhizal inoculation with respect to nutrient uptake capacity. Mycorrhiza, 14: 177–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dhar PP, Mridha MAU. 2003. Status of biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in different tree species growing in Betagi community forests. The Chittagong Univ J Sci, 27: 13–19.Google Scholar
  21. Dhar PP, Mridha MAU, Bhuiyan MK, Mohiuddin M. 2005. Status of root colonization and spore population of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Tectona grandis L. from Bangladesh. The Chittagong Univ J Sci, 29: 115–121.Google Scholar
  22. FAO. 1985. Land resources appraisal of Bangladesh. Map sheet of report 2 Agroecological Regions of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  23. FAO. 1988. Land resources appraisal of Bangladesh for agricultural developement. Report 2. Agroecological Regions of Bangladesh p 570.Google Scholar
  24. Fontenla S, Godoy R, Rosso P, Havrylenko M. 1998. Root association in Astrocedrus forests and seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhiza, 8: 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gerdemann JW, Nicolson TH. 1963. Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Trans Br Mycol Soc, 46: 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hetrick BAD. 1991. Mycorrhizas and root architecture. Experimentia, 47: 355–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hayman DS. 1982. Influence of soils and fertility on activity and survival of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Phytopathol, 72: 1119–1125.Google Scholar
  28. Jalali BL, Jalali I. 1991. Mycorrhizae in plant disease control. In: Aurora DK, Rai B, Mukerji KG, Knudsen GR (eds). Handbook of applied mycology. Vol: 1 Soils and Plants. New York: Maxcel Dekker Inc., pp. 131–154.Google Scholar
  29. Jasper DA, Abbott LK, Robson AD. 1989. Soil disturbance reduces the infectivity of external hyphae of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae. New phytol, 112: 93–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jasper DA, Abbott LK, Robson AD. 1990. The effect of soil disturbance on vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils from different vegetation types. New Phytol, 118: 417–476.Google Scholar
  31. Khan AG. 1974. The Occurrence of mycorrhizas in halophytes, hydrophytes and xerophytes and of Endogone spores in adjacent soils. J Gen Microbiol, 81: 7–14.Google Scholar
  32. Kiers ET, Lovelock CE, Krueger EL, Herre EA. 2000. Differential effects of tropical arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inocula on root colonization and tree seedling growth: implications for tropical forest diversity. Ecology, 84: 2292–2301.Google Scholar
  33. Klironomos JN, McCune J, Hart M, Neville J. 2000. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the relationship between plant diversity and productivity. Ecol Lett, 3: 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Koide RT. 1991. Nutrient supply, nutrient demand and plant response to mycorrhizal infection. New Phytol, 11: 35–44.Google Scholar
  35. Kumar D, Gaikwad SH, Singh SP. 1995. Influence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on mycorrhizal associations in wheat. In: Adholeya A, Singh S (eds) Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizer For The Future. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhiza. New Delhi, India, 13–15 March, 1995, New Delhi, TERI, pp 206–208Google Scholar
  36. Louis I, Lim G. 1987. Spore density and root colonization of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas in tropical soils. Trans Brit Mycol Soc, 88: 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Marschner H, Dell B. 1994. Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Plant and Soil, 159: 89–102.Google Scholar
  38. Mehrotra VS. 1998. Arbuscular mycorrhizal association of plants colonizing coal mine soils in India. J Agril Sci, 130: 123–133.Google Scholar
  39. Meney KA, Dixon KW, Scheltema M, Pates JS. 1993. Occurrence of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi dry land species of Restionaceae and Cyperaceae from South-Western Australia. Aus J Bot, 41: 733–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Miller RM, Jastrow JD. 1990. Hierarchy of root and mycorrhizal fungal interactions with soil aggregation. Soil Biol Biochem, 22: 579–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mohandas S. 1987. Field response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Pusa Ruby’) to inoculation with a VA mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatum and with Azotobacter vinelandii. Plant Soil, 98: 295–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mohan Kumar V, Mahadevan A. 1987. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal association in plants of Kalakad reserve forest, India. Angew Bot, 61: 255–274.Google Scholar
  43. Moreira-Souza M, Trufem, SFB, Gomes-da-Costa SM, Cardoso EJBN. 2003. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.)O. Ktze. Mycorrhiza, 13: 211–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morton JB. 1986. Three new species of Acaulospora (Endogonaceae) from high-aluminium, low pH soils in West Virginia. Mycologia, 78: 641–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Morton JB, Benny GL. 1990. Revised classification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Zygomycetes): a new order, Glomales, two new sub orders, Glomineae and Gigasporineae and two new families, Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae, with an emendation of Glomaceae. Mycotaxon, 37: 471–491.Google Scholar
  46. Moyersoen B, Becker P, Alexander IJ. 2001. Are ectomycorrhizas more abundant than arbuscular mycorrhizas in tropical heath forests? New Phytol, 150: 591–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mridha MAU. 2000. Nature farming with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae in Bangladesh. J Crop Prod, 3: 303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Muthukumar T, Udaiyan K. 2000a. Influence of organic manures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp in relation to tissue nutrients and soluble carbohydrate in roots under field condition. Biol Fertil Soils, 31: 114–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Muthukumar T, Udaiyan K. 2000b. Arbuscular mycorrhizas of plants growing in the Western Ghat region, Southern India. Mycorrhiza, 9: 297–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Neeraj A, Shankar A, Mathew J, Varma A. 1991. Occurrence of Vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizae with Amaranthaceae in soils of the Indian semi arid region. Biol Fertil Soils, 11: 140–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. O’Connor PJ, Smith SE, Smith EA. 2002. Arbuscular mycorrhizas influence plant diversity and community structure in a semiarid herb land. New Phytol, 154: 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Onguene NA, Kuyper TW. 2001. Mycorrhizal associations in the rain forest of South Cameroon. For Ecol Manage, 140: 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Parvathi K, Venkateswarlu K, Rao AS. 1984. Occurrence of VA mycorrhizas on different legumes in a laterite soil. Curr Sci, 53: 1254–1255.Google Scholar
  54. Phillips JM, Hayman DS. 1970. Improved procedures for clearing, staining parasitic, and Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans Br Mycol Soc, 55: 158–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ragupathy S, Mohankumar V, Mahadevan A. 1990. Occurrence of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae in tropical hydrophytes. Aqua Bot, 36: 287–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Raman N, Gopinathan S. 1992. Association and activity of Vesicular arbuscular Mycorrhizae of tropical trees in a tropical forest of southern India. J Trop For, 8: 311–322.Google Scholar
  57. Rahman MS, Mridha MAU, Islam SMN, Hoque SMS, Dhar PP, Shah SK. 2003. Status of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in certain tropical forest tree legume seedlings. The Indian For, 129: 371–376.Google Scholar
  58. Schenck NC, Perez Y. 1990. Manual for the identification of VA mycorrhizal fungi. 3rd eds. Synergistic publications. USAGoogle Scholar
  59. Singh R, Adholeya A, Mukerji KG. 2000. Mycorrhizal in control of soil borne pathogens. In: Mukerji and B P Chamola (eds), Mycorrhizal Biology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 173–196.Google Scholar
  60. Sengupta A, Chaudhuri S. 1990. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi in pioneer salt marsh plants of the Ganges river delta in West Bengal (India). Plant Soil, 22: 111–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sharma SK, Sharma GD, Mishra RR. 1986. Status of mycorrhizae in subtropical forest ecosystems of Meghalaya. Acta Bot Ind, 14: 87–92.Google Scholar
  62. Sieverding E. 1991. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae management in tropical agro systems. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmBH, Eschh boran, p. 371.Google Scholar
  63. Sutton JC, Baron GL. 1972. Population dynamics of Endogone spores in soils. Can J Bot, 50: 1909–1914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tawaraya K, Takaya Y, Turjaman M, Tuah SJ, Limin SH, Tamai Y, Cha JY, Wagatsuma T, Osaki M. 2003. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of tree species grown in peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. For Ecol Manage, 182: 381–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thapar HS, Khan SN. 1985. Distribution of VA mycorrhizal fungi in forest soils of India. Indian J For, 8: 5–7.Google Scholar
  66. Tisdall JM, Oades JM. 1982. Organic matter and water stable aggregates in soils. J Soil Sci, 33: 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Van der Heijden MGA, Klironomos JN, Ursic M, Moutoglis P, Strietwolf-Engel R, Boller T, Wiemken A, Sanders IR. 1998. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines the plant diversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature, 396: 69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyDinajpur Govt. CollegeDinajpurBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh

Personalised recommendations