Advertisement

The Landscape of the “Spirit of Sport”

A Systematic Review
  • Mojisola Obasa
  • Pascal BorryEmail author
Original Research

Abstract

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) sets out a detailed description of what its own conception of the “spirit of sport” as employed in the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) entails. However, controversies as to the significance and meaning to be ascribed to the term abound in the literature. In order to unravel the core of the debates and to move discussions forward, the authors aimed at reviewing understandings of the spirit of sport in the conceptual literature. The main databases were searched using relevant keywords. After the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, eighteen publications were included in the review. The most striking result to emerge from the data is the multivalence of the concept of spirit of sport. Our thematic analysis generated the contestability of the spirit of sport as the predominant theme in the conceptual literature. There is a need for empirical research to generate data about perspectives on the spirit of sport from other stakeholders especially those of the athletes themselves.

Keywords

Anti-doping Spirit of sport Anti-doping policy Performance enhancement 

Notes

References

  1. Beamish, R., and I. Ritchie. 2006. Fastest, highest, strongest: A critique of high-performance sport. Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Bloodworth, A.J., and M. McNamee. 2017. Sport, society, and anti-doping policy: An ethical overview. In Acute Topics in Anti-Doping, edited by O. Rabin and Y. Pitsiladis, 177–185.Google Scholar
  3. Carolan, E., 2006. The New WADA Code and the search for a policy justification for anti-doping rules. Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law 16(1).Google Scholar
  4. de Hon, O., 2017. The redundancy of the concept of “spirit of sport” in discussions on the prohibited list of doping substances. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics 9(4): 667–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Geeraets, V. 2017. Ideology, doping and the spirit of sport. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 12(3): 255–271.Google Scholar
  6. Gleaves, J., M.P. Llewellyn, and T. Lehrbach. 2014. Before the rules are written: Navigating moral ambiguity in performance enhancement. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 8(1): 85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Henne, K., B. Koh, and V. McDermott. 2013. Coherence of drug policy in sports: Illicit inclusions and illegal inconsistencies. Performance Enhancement and Health 2(2): 48–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hsieh, H-F., and S.E. Shannon. 2005. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research 15(9): 1277–1288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kornbeck, J. 2013. The naked spirit of sport: A framework for revisiting the system of bans and justifications in the world anti-doping code. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 7(3): 313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liberati, A., D.G. Altman, J. Tetzlaff, et al. 2009. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. PLOS Medicine 6(7): e1000100.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Loland, S. and H. Hoppeler, 2012. Justifying anti-doping: The fair opportunity principle and the biology of performance enhancement. European Journal of Sport Science 12(4): 347–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Malloy, D.C., R. Kell, and R. Kelln. 2007. The spirit of sport, morality, and hypoxic tents: Logic and authenticity. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 32(2): 289–296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. McNamee, M.J. 2013. The spirit of sport and anti-doping policy: An ideal worth fighting for. Play True 1: 14–16.Google Scholar
  14. McNamee, M.J. 2012. The spirit of sport and the medicalisation of anti-doping: Empirical and normative ethics. Asian Bioethics Review 4(4): 374–392.Google Scholar
  15. Molloy, J.W., and Adams, R.C. 1987. The spirit of sport: Essays about sport and values. Wyndham Hall Press.Google Scholar
  16. Moston, S. 2013. The spirit of sport? Performance Enhancement & Health 2(2): 74–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mulhall, S.J. 2006. Critique of the world anti-doping code. a. Advocate (Vancouver) 64, 29.Google Scholar
  18. Murray, T.H. 2007. In search of the spirit of sport. Play True 3: 24–6.Google Scholar
  19. Nowell, L.S., J.M. Norris, D.E. White, and N.J. Moules. 2017. Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 16(1).Google Scholar
  20. Ritchie, I. 2014. Pierre de Coubertin, doped “amateurs” and the “spirit of sport”: The role of mythology in Olympic anti-doping policies. The International Journal of the History of Sport 31(8): 820–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ritchie, I. 2013. The construction of a policy: The World Anti-Doping Code’s “spirit of sport” clause. Performance Enhancement & Health 2(4): 194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Savulescu, J. 2016. Doping scandals, Rio and the future of human enhancement. Bioethics 30(5): 300–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Savulescu, J., B. Foddy, and M. Clayton. 2004. Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine 38(6): 666–670.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Tamburrini, C. 2006. Are doping sanctions justified? A moral relativistic view. Sport in Society 9(2): 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). 2015. World Anti-Doping Code 2015. Canada: World Anti-Doping Agency Montreal.Google Scholar
  26. Waddington, I., A.V. Christiansen, J. Gleaves, J. Hoberman, and V. Møller. 2013. Recreational drug use and sport: Time for a WADA rethink? Performance Enhancement & Health 2(2): 41–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Pty Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Department of Public Health and Primary CareKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations