Advertisement

Maqasid al-Shariah Based Islamic Bioethics: A Comprehensive Approach

  • Abdul Halim IbrahimEmail author
  • Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman
  • Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen
  • Madiha Baharuddin
Original Research

Abstract

Maqasid al-Shariah based Islamic bioethics is an Islamic bioethics concept which uses the objectives of the Shariah (maqasid al-Shariah) as its approach in analysing and assessing bioethical issues. Analysis based on maqasid al-Shariah based Islamic bioethics will examine any bioethical issues from three main aspects namely intention, method, and output or final goal of the studied issues. Then, the evaluation will be analysed from human interest hierarchy, inclusivity, and degree of certainty. The Islamic bioethics concept is a manifestation of dynamic Islamic jurisprudence which can overcome new complex and complicated bioethical issues such as tri-parent baby technology issues. Therefore, this article will introduce and explain the concept of maqasid al-Shariah based Islamic bioethics and outline a general guidance of maqasid al-Shariah based Islamic bioethics to determine a maqṣad (objective) based on standards of human good or well-being (maslahah) and harm (mafsadah).

Keywords

Maqasid al-Shariah Islamic bioethics Bioethics Malay Archipelago Sunni 

Notes

References

  1. Abdullah, A.B. 2014. An analysis of Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) as applied Islamic ethics. Islam and Civilisational Renewal 5(2): 183–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad, R. 2004. Standard maslahah dan mafsadah dalam penentuan hukum Islam semasa di Malaysia [The standard of pros and cons in the determination of current Islamic law in Malaysia]. Ph.D Thesis. Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  3. Aksoy, S., and A. Elmali. 2002. The core concepts of “The Principles” of bioethics as found in Islamic tradition. Medicine and Law 21: 211-224.Google Scholar
  4. al-Bar, M.A., and H. Chamsi-Pasha. 2015. Contemporary bioethics: Islamic perspective. London: Springer Open.Google Scholar
  5. al-Fasi, ’A. 1993. Maqasid al-Shari’ah al-Islamiyyah wa Makarimuha [The Objectives of Islamic law and their generosities]. Beirut: Dar al-Gharb al-Islamiy.Google Scholar
  6. al-Ghazzali, A.H.M. n.d. Al-Mustaṣfā min al-ʿIlm al-Uṣūl [On Legal theory of Islamic Jurisprudence], Vol 2. Edited by H.Z. Hafiz. Madinah: Syarkah al-Madinah al-Munawwara li al-Tiba’ah.Google Scholar
  7. al-Khadimiy, N.M. 2001. ’Ilm al-maqasid al-shar’iyyah [Knowledge of Islamic law objectives]. Riyadh: Maktabah al-Obeikan.Google Scholar
  8. al-Qaradhawi, Y. 2014. Fiqh keutamaan: Keutamaan seorang Muslim [Fiqh of priority: A Muslim's priority]. Translated by Ahmad Muzakkir Ahlami and Lasafarudi Lahadi. Kuala Lumpur: PTS Islamika.Google Scholar
  9. ----. 1993. Madkhal li Dirasah al-Shari’ah [Introduction of Shariah studies]. Beirut: Muassasah al-Risalah.Google Scholar
  10. al-Raysuni, A. 1995. Nazariyyah al-Maqasid ’Inda al-Imam al-Shatibi [The theory of the objectives of Imam Shatibi]. Herndon: The International Institute of Islamic Thought.Google Scholar
  11. al-Salam, ’Izz al-Din Abd al-’Aziz ibn Abd. 2000. al-Qawa’id al-Kubra al-Mausum bi Qawa’id al-Ahkam fi Masalih al-An’am [Major rules marked by the Islamic legal maxims in the interests of the creatures]. Damsyik: Dar al-Qalam.Google Scholar
  12. al-Yubi, M.S.A.M. 2011. Maqasid al-Shari’ah al-Islamiyyah wa ‘Alaqatuha bi al-Adillah al-Tasyri’iyyah [The objectives of Islamic law and their connections with legislative evidence]. Riyadh: Dar Ibn al-Jauzi.Google Scholar
  13. al-Zuhaili, W. 1985. al-Fiqh al-Islamiyy wa Adillatuhu [Islamic jurisprudence and its evidence]. Damsyik: Dar al-Fikr.Google Scholar
  14. ----. 1986. Usul al-fiqh al-Islamiyy [The basis of Islamic jurisprudence]. Damsyik: Dar al-Fikr.Google Scholar
  15. Ashur, M.a-T. 2001. Maqasid al-Shari’ah al-Islamiyyah [Objectives of Islamic law]. Amman: Dar al-Nafaes.Google Scholar
  16. Auda, J. 2010. Maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah as philosophy of Islamic law: A systems approach. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust & The International Institute of Islamic Thought.Google Scholar
  17. Bagheri, A. 2014. Priority setting in Islamic bioethics: Top 10 bioethical challenges in Islamic countries. Asian Bioethics Review 6(4): 391–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bakar, O. 2011. The place and role of Maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah in the ummah's 21st century civilisational renewal. Islam and Civilisational Renewal 2(2): 285–301.Google Scholar
  19. Chamsi-Pasha, H., and M.A. Albar. 2013. Western and Islamic bioethics: How close is the gap?” Avicenna Journal of Medicine 3(1): 8–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chapra, M.U. 2008. The Islamic vision of development in the light of Maqāsid al-sharī‘ah. Jeddah: Islamic Development Bank.Google Scholar
  21. Dusuki, A.W., and A. Abozaid. 2007. A critical appraisal on the challenges of realizing Maqasid al-Shariah. IIUM Journal of Economics and Management 15(2): 143–165.Google Scholar
  22. Ebrahim, A.F.M. 1988. Biomedical issues: Islamic perspective. Kuala Lumpur: A.S. Noordeen.Google Scholar
  23. Eich, T. 2013. Bioethics in Islam. In Encyclopedia of sciences and religions, edited by A.L. C. Runehov and L. Oviedo, 216–217. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.Google Scholar
  24. European Humanist Federation. 2014. European Humanist Federation. http://www.humanistfederation.eu/humanism-secularism.php?page=humanism. Accessed 29 Jun, 2015.
  25. Fakhry, M. 1994. Ethical theories in Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
  26. Ghaly, M. 2013. Islamic bioethics in the twenty-first century. Zygon 48(3): 592–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ghazali, M.R. 2014. Kepentingan maqasid syariah dalam berfatwa di Malaysia [The importance of the objectives of Islamic Law in Islamic verdicts in Malaysia]. Jurnal Pengurusan dan Penyelidikan Fatwa 4(1): 7–30.Google Scholar
  28. Hashi, A.A. 2015. Bioethics: A comparative study of its concept, issues and approaches. Kuala Lumpur: IIUM Press.Google Scholar
  29. ----. 2011. Islamic ethics: An outline of its principles and scope. Revelation and Science 1(3): 122–130.Google Scholar
  30. Have, H.T. 2013. Global bioethics: Transnational experiences and Islamic bioethics. Zygon 48(3): 600–617.Google Scholar
  31. Iqbal, M., and R. Noble. 2009. Islamic identity and the ethics of assisted reproduction. In Faith and fertility, edited by E. Blyth and R. Landau, 86–110. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Ibrahim, A. H. 2018. “Teknologi Bayi Tri-Induk Menurut Bioetika Islam Berasaskan Maqasid Al-Shariah.” [Tri-parent Baby Technology According to Maqasid al-Shariah Based Islamic Bioethics]. Ph.D Thesis. Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  33. Islam, S. 2013. Ethics of assisted reproductive medicine: A comparative study of western secular and Islamic bioethics. London: The International Institute of Islamic Thought.Google Scholar
  34. Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia. 2015. Hukum menggunakan kaedah khidmat ibu tumpang untuk mendapatkan zuriat [The verdict of using surrogate mother to conceive children]. e-Fatwa, April 10. http://www.e-fatwa.gov.my/fatwa-kebangsaan/hukum-menggunakan-kaedah-khidmat-ibu-tumpang-untuk-mendapatkan-zuriat. Accessed April 13, 2015.
  35. Kamali, M.H. 2011. Maqasid al-Shari’ah and Ijtihad as instruments of civilisational renewal: A methodological perspective. Islam and Civilisational Renewal 2(2): 245–271.Google Scholar
  36. ----. 2008. Maqasid al-Shariah made simple. London: International Institute of Islamic Thought.Google Scholar
  37. ----. 2006. An introduction to Shari'ah. Kuala Lumpur: Ilmiah Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. ----. 2003. Principles of Islamic jurisprudence. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society.Google Scholar
  39. Kasule, O.H. 2015. A medical perspective on preservation of human progeny. In Preservation of human progeny in the age of biotechnology, edited by S.M. Saifuddeen, 45–56. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia.Google Scholar
  40. Lawrence, D.J. 2007. The four principles of biomedical ethics: A foundation for current bioethical debate. Journal of Chiropractic Humanities 14(1): 34–40.Google Scholar
  41. Malek, B. 1999. Doktrin dosa warisan di dalam agama kristian dari perspektif roman katholik : suatu analisis [The doctrine of original sin in Christianity from a Catholic perspective: An analysis ]. Masters Dissertation. Universiti Malaya.Google Scholar
  42. Mansor, M.S., and M.A. Ramli. 2016. Pendekatan pseudo-maqasid dalam aliran hukum Islam semasa [Pseudo-maqasid approach in current Islamic law]. In Maqasid al-Shariah: Aplikasi dalam aspek sosial dan perundangan [The objectives of Islamic law: Application in social and legal aspects], by R.A.A. Rahim, M.A. Ramli and S.A. Khalil, 221–244. Kuala Lumpur: Jabatan Fiqh dan Usul, Universiti Malaya.Google Scholar
  43. Mepham, B. 2013. Bioethics: An introduction for the biosciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Moosa, E., and A.A. Mian. 2012. Islam. In Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, edited by R. Chadwick, 769–776. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Nor, S.N.M. 2015. Ethical issues in artificial reproductive techniques. In Preservation of human progeny in the age of biotechnology, edited by S.M. Saifuddeen, 83–116. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia.Google Scholar
  46. Nordin, M.M. 2015. Islamic medical ethics amidst developing biotechnologies. In Preservation of human progeny in the age of biotechnology, edited by S.M. Saifuddeen, 57–72. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia.Google Scholar
  47. Raquib, A. 2015. Islamic ethics of technology. Kuala Lumpur: The Other Press.Google Scholar
  48. Saifuddeen, S.M., C.L. Wei, A.H. Ibrahim, and N.A.M. Khotib. 2013. Islamic ethical framework to tackle scientific and technological dilemmas. Journal of Dharma 38(4): 373–386.Google Scholar
  49. Saifuddeen, S.M., N.N.A. Rahman, N.M. Isa, and A. Baharuddin. 2014. Maqasid al-Shariah as a complementary framework to conventional bioethics. Science Engineering Ethics 20: 317–327.Google Scholar
  50. Yusof, F.M., A.S. Rosman, S. Mahmood, S.H.M. Sarip, and T.U. Noh. 2013. Green technology management in the Muslim world. Jurnal Teknologi 65(1): 107–115.Google Scholar
  51. Zaroug, A.H. 1999. Ethics from an Islamic perspective: Basic issues. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 16(3): 45–63.Google Scholar
  52. Zaydan, A.K. 2001. al-wajiz fi sharh al-qawa’id al-fiqhiyyah fi al-Shari’ah al-Islamiyyah [Brief explanatory of Islamic legal maxims]. Beirut: Muassasah al-Risalah.Google Scholar
  53. ----. 1976. al-wajiz fi usul al-fiqh [Brief explanatory of principle of Islamic jurisprudence]. Muassasah Qurtubah.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Pty Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Programme of Applied Science with Islamic StudiesAcademy of Islamic Studies, University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Fiqh and UsulAcademy of Islamic Studies, University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre for Science and Environment StudiesInstitute of Islamic Understanding MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations