Rethinking “Commercial” Surrogacy in Australia
- 3k Downloads
This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate “good” surrogacy arrangements from “bad” ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.
KeywordsSurrogate mothers Infertility Reproductive medicine
Thanks to Michaela Stockey-Bridge, Anita Stuhmcke, and the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry’s reviewers for their thoughtful comments and Emma Butler for research assistance.
This research was supported by Discovery Project Grant 0986213 from the Australian Research Council and funding from UTS: Law.
There are no competing interests.
- Braveman, A., P. Casey, and V. Jadva. 2012. Reproduction through surrogacy in the U.K. and U.S.A. In Reproductive donation: Practice, policy and bioethics, edited by M. Richards, G. Pennings, and J. Appleby, 150–167. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Brugger, K. 2012. International law in the gestational surrogacy debate. Fordham International Law Journal 35(3): 665–697.Google Scholar
- Busby, K., and D. Vun. 2010. Revisiting The Handmaid’s Tale: Feminist theory meets empirical research on surrogate motherhood. Canadian Journal of Family Law 26(1): 13–93.Google Scholar
- Campbell, A. 2012. Law’s suppositions about surrogacy against the backdrop of social science. Ottawa Law Review 43(1): 29–58.Google Scholar
- Campbell, A. 2013. Sister wives, surrogates and sex workers: Outlaws by choice? Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Cohen, I.G. 2010. Protecting patients with passports: Medical tourism and the patient protective-argument. Iowa Law Review 95(5): 1467–1567.Google Scholar
- Cohen, I.G. 2011. Medical tourism, access to health care, and global justice. Virginia Journal of International Law 52(1): 1–56.Google Scholar
- Department of Immigration and Citizenship [DIAC]. 2012. Citizenship by descent applications granted to infants by India and USA posts 2008–2011 [FOI request FA 12/03/00935]. Canberra: DIAC.Google Scholar
- Department of Immigration and Citizenship [DIAC]. 2013. Applications for citizenship by descent lodged for applicants 18 years or under, by country of birth (India, Thailand, Ukraine and USA). January 19.Google Scholar
- Everingham, S. 2014. Use of surrogacy by Australians: Implications for policy and law reform. In Families, policy and the law: Selected essays on contemporary issues for Australia, edited by A. Hayes and D. Higgins, 67–80. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.Google Scholar
- Gamble, N. 2012. Made in the U.S.A.: Representing U.K. parents conceiving through surrogacy and ART in the United States. Family Law Quarterly 46(1): 155–168.Google Scholar
- Golombok, S., C. Murray, V. Jadva, E. Lycett, F. MacCallum, and J. Rust. 2006b. Non-genetic and non-gestational parenthood: Consequences for parent–child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers and children at age 3. Human Reproduction 21(7): 1918–1924.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hague Conference on Private International law. 2012. Preliminary report on the issues arising from international surrogacy arrangements. The Hague: Permanent Bureau. http://www.hcch.net/upload/wop/gap2012pd10en.pdf . Accessed October 28, 2013.
- Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority [HFEA]. 2012. Code of practice, 8th ed. London: The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. http://www.hfea.gov.uk/docs/8th_Code_of_Practice.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2014.
- Keyes, M. 2011. Cross border surrogacy agreements. Australian Journal of Family Law 26(1): 28–50.Google Scholar
- Krawiec, K. 2009. Altruism and intermediaries in the market for babies. Washington and Lee Law Review 66(1): 203–257.Google Scholar
- Laufer-Ukeles, P. 2003. Gestation: Work for hire of the essence of motherhood? A comparative legal analysis. Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy 19(2): 91–133.Google Scholar
- Laufer-Ukeles, P. 2013. Mothering for money: Regulating commercial intimacy. Indiana Law Journal 88(1): 1–57.Google Scholar
- Macaldowie, A., Y.A. Wang, G.M. Chambers, and E.A. Sullivan. 2012. Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand 2010. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737423255. Accessed June 10, 2014.
- Millbank, J. 2011. The new surrogacy parentage laws in Australia: Cautious regulation or “25 brick walls”? Melbourne University Law Review 35(1): 165–207.Google Scholar
- Millbank, J. 2013. Resolving the dilemma of legal parentage for Australians engaged in international surrogacy. Australian Journal of Family Law 27(2): 135–170.Google Scholar
- Millbank, J., E. Chandler, I. Karpin, and A. Stuhmcke. 2013. Embryo donation for reproductive use in Australia. Journal of Law and Medicine 20(4): 789–810.Google Scholar
- Millbank, J., I. Karpin, and A. Stuhmcke. 2013. Towards facilitative regulation of assisted reproductive treatment in Australia. Journal of Law and Medicine 20(4): 701–711.Google Scholar
- Murphy, T. 2009. The texture of choice. In New technologies and human rights, edited by T. Murphy, 195–221. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC]. 2007. Ethical guidelines on the use of assisted reproductive technology in clinical practice and research. Canberra: Australian Government. http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/e78.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2014.
- Page, S., and A. Harland. 2011. Tiptoe through the minefield: A state-by-state comparison of surrogacy laws in Australia. Family Law Review 1(4): 198–230.Google Scholar
- Pascoe, J. 2011. The rise of surrogate parenting: Family law and human rights implications in Australia and internationally. http://www.federalcircuitcourt.gov.au/pubs/html/Speech%20-%20Pascoe%20-%20LawAsia%20-%202011.html. Accessed October 25, 2013.
- Pennings, G., E. Vayena, and K. Ahuja. 2012. Balancing ethical criteria for the recruitment of gamete donors. In Reproductive donation: Practice, policy and bioethics, edited by M. Richards, G. Pennings, and J. Appleby, 150–167. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Ragoné, H. 1994. Surrogate motherhood: Conception in the heart. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Ragoné, H. 2003. Gift of life: Surrogate motherhood, gamete donation and constructions of altruism. In Surrogate motherhood: International perspectives, edited by R. Cook, S. Day Sclater, and F. Kaganas, 3209–3226. Abingdon: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
- Reproductive Technology Accreditation Committee [RTAC], Fertility Society of Australia. 2010. Code of practice for assisted reproductive technology units. Melbourne: Fertility Society of Australia. http://www.fertilitysociety.com.au/wp-content/uploads/201011201-final-rtac-cop.pdf. Accessed October 25, 2013.
- Skene, L. 2012. Why legalising commercial surrogacy is a good idea. The Conversation, December 10. http://theconversation.com/why-legalising-commercial-surrogacy-is-a-good-idea-11251. Accessed October 25, 2013.
- Standing Committee of Attorneys-General [SCAG] Joint Working Group. 2009. A proposal for a national model to harmonise regulation of surrogacy. Sydney: NSW Attorney General's Department. http://www.nt.gov.au/justice/policycoord/documents/polcoord_surrogacy_consultationpaper.pdf.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2014.
- Stockey-Bridge, M. 2013. Surrogate-intended parent relationships in a transnational context. Presentation at the Surrogacy Australia conference, May 6–7, in Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
- Storrow, R. 2012. The phantom children of the new republic: International surrogacy and the new illegitimacy. American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy and the Law 20(3): 561–609.Google Scholar
- Stuhmcke, A. 2014. Extraterritoriality and surrogacy: The problem of State and Territory moral sovereignty. In Law in context, edited by A. Sifris and P. Gerber, pages forthcoming. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press Sydney.Google Scholar
- Ware, J. 2013. First IVF provider to be floated on stock market sees early share price boost. BioNews (709), June 17. http://www.bionews.org.uk/page_313238.asp. Accessed June 10, 2014.