Policy Design for Human Embryo Research in Canada: An Analysis (Part 2 of 2)
- 108 Downloads
This article is the second in a two-part review of policy design for human embryo research in Canada. In the first article in 6(1) of the JBI, we explain how this area of research is circumscribed by law promulgated by the federal Parliament and by guidelines adopted by the Tri-Agencies, and we provide a chronological description of relevant policy initiatives and outcomes related to these two policy instruments, with particular attention to the repeated efforts at public consultation. This second article analyses the history of policy design for human embryo research in Canada, applying a typology of modes of public consultation developed by Eric Montpetit to better understand the various episodes of policy design and their corresponding outcomes. On this basis, we suggest that the degree to which the views of Canadian residents and citizens on human embryo research have been solicited as part of the policy-making process has diminished significantly over time. We also suggest that this diminished participation is likely to continue given the presence of powerful interest groups and policy communities “speaking for” Canadians. This raises interesting questions about the legitimacy of future policy initiatives for human embryo research in Canada.
KeywordsEmbryos Stem cells Research Policy Public consultation
Thanks are owed to Eric Montpetit and two anonymous reviewers for comments on an earlier draft.
Françoise Baylis was a member of the CIHR ad hoc Working Group on Stem Cell Research from November 2000 to December 2001 and a member of the CIHR Governing Council from January 2002 to December 2004. She was a Principal Investigator funded by the Stem Cell Network from January 2002 to December 2005. Currently she is a member of the Board of Directors of Assisted Human Reproduction Canada. The views expressed herein are her own.
This work is supported by a research grant from the Australian Research Council (to Susan Dodds) and a salary award from the Canada Research Chairs program (to Françoise Baylis).
- ALS Society of Canada. 2003. Assisted Human Reproduction Bill C-13 passes: Regulated embryonic stem cell research to proceed. http://www.als.ca/als_news.asp?intNewsID=161. Accessed 4 Jan 2009.
- Angell, M. 2004. The truth about drug companies—How they deceive us and what to do about it. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Baird, P. 1997. Human embryo research in Canada: Legal and policy aspects. Human Reproduction 12(11):2343–2345.Google Scholar
- Batt, S. 2005. Marching to different drummers: Health advocacy groups in Canada and funding from the pharmaceutical industry. Women and Health Protection, January. http://www.whp-apsf.ca/pdf/corpFunding.pdf. Accessed 4 Jan 2009.
- Baylis, F., and C. McInnes. 2007. Women at risk: Embryonic and fetal stem cell research in Canada. McGill Journal of Law & Health 1:53–67.Google Scholar
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research. ad hoc Working Group on Stem Cell Research. 2002. Human pluripotent stem cell research: Recommendations for CIHR-funded research. http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/1489.html#public_consultation. Accessed 4 Jan 2009 [CIHR WG].
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2002. Human pluripotent stem cell research: Guidelines for CIHR-funded research. http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/1487.html. Accessed 31 Jan 2009 [CIHR].
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research.33rd Meeting of the Governing Council. 2005. Minutes. http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/28683.html. Accessed 31 Jan 2009 [CIHR].
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2007. Updated guidelines for human pluripotent stem cell research. http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/34460.html. Accessed 20 Feb 2009 [CIHR].
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2007a. Stem cell research: Survey. http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/15255.html. Accessed 15 Feb 2008; no longer accessible [CIHR].
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2008a. Guidelines for human pluripotent stem cell research: Policy details. http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/28215.html. Accessed 20 Feb 2009 [CIHR].
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2008b. Guidelines for human pluripotent stem cell research: Frequently asked questions. http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/15349.html. Accessed 20 Feb 2009 [CIHR].
- Caulfield, T., A. Daar, P. Singer, and B. Knoppers. 2002. Ban cloning, not its life-saving cousin. Globe & Mail. May 9; Sect. A:21.Google Scholar
- Discussion Group on Embryo Research. 1995. Research on human embryos in Canada: final report of the Discussion Group on Embryo Research. Submitted to Health Canada, 15 November 1995. [Discussion Group].Google Scholar
- Eichler, M. 1998. Royal commission on new reproductive technologies. Canadian Encyclopedia, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1SEC827430. Accessed 11 March 2008; no longer accessible.
- Eichler, M. 1993. Frankenstein meets Kafka: The royal commission on new reproductive technologies. In Misconceptions: The social construction of choice and the new reproductive and genetic technologies. Vol. 1, eds. B. Gwynne, M. Eichler, and A. Lippman, 196–222. Hull: Voyager.Google Scholar
- Government of Canada. 2007. Mobilizing science and technology to Canada’s advantage [monograph on the Internet]. Industry Canada http://www.ic.gc.ca/s&tstrategy. Accessed 4 Jan 2009.
- Health Canada. 1996. New reproductive and genetic technologies: Setting boundaries, enhancing health. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/brgtherap/reg-init/cell/tech_reprod_e.html. Accessed 4 Jan 2009.
- Health Canada. 2001. Proposals for legislation governing assisted human reproduction. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/pubs/reprod/overview-apercu/overview_e.html. Accessed 4 Jan 2009.
- Health Canada. 2006. Public involvement. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/reprod/hc-sc/public/index_e.html. Accessed 4 Jan 2009.
- International Consortium of Stem Cell Networks. 2005. A collaborative research group of the ISCF, Montréal White Paper. June 23. http://www.stemcellcentre.edu.au/PDF/Montreal_White_Paper.pdf. Accessed 4 Jan 2009 [ICSCN].
- Jones, M., and B. Salter. Learning to regulate: Values, actors, and instruments in developing Canada’s assisted human reproduction framework. Submitted, Health Policy (in review).Google Scholar
- Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. 2008. Juvenile diabetes research foundation position on cloning. http://www.jdrf.ca/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewPage&page_id=2BA175AC-986B-E3CF-CB02A279764BA2BF. Accessed 4 Jan 2009 [JDRF].
- Massey, C. 1993. The public hearings of the royal commission on new reproductive technologies: An evaluation. In Misconceptions: The social construction of choice and the new reproductive and genetic technologies. Vol. 1, eds. B. Gwynne, M. Eichler, and A. Lippman, 237–252. Hull: Voyager.Google Scholar
- Medical Research Council of Canada, National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. 2003. Tri-council policy statement: Ethical conduct for research involving humans. Ottawa: Public Works and Government Services. http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/english/pdf/TCPS%20June2003_E.pdf. Accessed 4 Jan 2009 [MRC] including updates effective May 2000 and September 2002.
- Montpetit, E. 2004. Policy networks, federalism and managerial ideas: how ART non-decision in Canada safeguards the autonomy of the medical profession. In Comparative Biomedical Policy: Governing assisted reproductive technologies, eds. I. Bleiklie, M.L. Goggin, and C. Rothmayr, 64–81. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Rivard, G., and J. Hunter. 2005. The law on assisted human reproduction. Markham: LexisNexis.Google Scholar
- Roberts, J.H. 1999. Coalition building and public opinion: new reproductive technologies and Canadian civil society 15(1):15–21. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care doi: 10.1017/S0266462399015147.
- Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies. 1993. Proceed with care: The final report of the royal commission on new reproductive technologies, Vol.1 and Vol. 2. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada. [RCNRT].Google Scholar
- Scharpf, F.W. 1999. Governing in Europe: Effective and democratic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Stem Cell Network. 2006. Use of human embryos for stem cell research. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/pdfs/policy_humanembryo.pdf. Accessed 4 Jan 2009 [SCN].
- Stem Cell Network. 2008a. The stem cell network Annual Report 07–08: The tipping point. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/annualreport/index.html. Accessed 4 Jan 2009 [SCN].
- Stem Cell Network. 2008b. Resource library. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/library.php. Accessed 10 Jan 2009 [SCN].
- Stem Cell Network. 2008c. Partners. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/partners.php. Accessed 4 Jan 2009 [SCN].
- Stem Cell Network. 2008d. Strategic Program IV: Public Policy & Ethical, Legal & Social Issues. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research.php. Accessed 10 Jan 2009 [SCN].
- Supreme Court of Canada. 2008. Order Motion. Attorney General of Canada v. Attorney General of Quebec, 10(32750), Qc.Google Scholar
- Vandelac, L. 1993. The Baird commission: From ‘access’ to ‘reproductive technologies’ to the ‘excesses’ of practitioners or the art of diversion and relentless pursuit.... In Misconceptions: The social construction of choice and the new reproductive and genetic technologies, Vol. 1, eds. B. Gwynne, M. Eichler, and A. Lippman, 253–272. Hull: Voyager.Google Scholar