Pb-Free Solders: Part III. Wettability Testing of Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi Alloys with Sb Additions
Maximum bubble pressure, dilatometric, and meniscographic methods were used in the investigations of the surface tensions, densities, wetting times, wetting forces, contact angles, and solder-flux interfacial tensions of liquid Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys with various additions of Sb. Density and surface tension measurements were conducted in the temperature range 230 to 900 °C. Surface tensions at 250 °C were measured in air and under a protective atmosphere of Ar-H2 and were combined with data from meniscographic studies done under air or with a protective flux. Meniscographic data with a nonwetted Teflon substrate provided data on solder-flux interfacial tensions, and meniscographic data with a Cu substrate allowed determinations of wetting times, wetting forces, and calculations of contact angles. Additions of Sb to quaternary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys improve wettability, move the parameters closer to those of traditional solders, and affirm, as found in previous studies of Bi additions to the Sn-Ag-Cu near-eutectic compositions, that interfacial tensions and contact angles are the two parameters most important as a metric of wettability. However, in contrast to results found in studies of quaternary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys, the changes in quinary Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi-Sb alloys of interfacial tensions and contact angles do not correlate with decreasing wetting time and increasing wetting force.
Keywordsdensity meniscographic studies Pb-free solders surface tension
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