Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effects of Axial and Multiaxial Variable Amplitude Loading Conditions on the Fatigue Life Assessment of Automotive Steering Knuckle

  • 18 Accesses


In this paper, the author has attempted to investigate the effects of different loading conditions including axial and multiaxial variable amplitude loading (VAL) on the fatigue life assessment of automotive components under various maneuvers. To this end, a case study was conducted on the cast iron steering knuckle of a passenger car. In fact, the various VAL histories are entered on the three joints of knuckle, namely steering linkage, lower control arm, and MacPherson strut. However, previous studies have shown that this high super-critical component fails through the steering linkage. Moreover, the rotation of the steering linkage is the most destructive load. Hence, in this research, different loading cases such as axial (destructive load as means 1 channel), multiaxial (only relates to loading on the joint of knuckle and steering linkage means 3 channels), and full multiaxial (including all loading time histories means 9 channels) were considered. Afterward, finite element analysis was performed for each case, and fatigue life of the component was predicted under different conditions. Next, fatigue life of the component was evaluated using the time histories of stress tensor in the root of steering linkage which is extracted by transient dynamic analysis and applying probabilistic approach based on the Liu–Zenner equivalent stress criterion. Eventually, the responses from both techniques were compared in different cases. The results reveal that life predicted using two methods are slightly different. But, the results of probabilistic approach are more accurate than the results of FEM in comparison with experimental data for the axial state. Also, one of the major achievements of this study is that for the components with complex geometry and under multi-input loading like the steering knuckle, it is essential to perform fatigue analysis by considering all real conditions and cannot be only focused to the destructive loading.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. 1.

    V. Sivananth, S. Vijayarangan, Fatigue life analysis and optimization of a passenger car steering knuckle under operating conditions. Int. J. Autom. Mech. Eng. 11, 2417–2429 (2015)

  2. 2.

    S. Vijayarangan, N. Rajamanickam, V. Sivananth, Evaluation of metal matrix composite to replace spheroidal graphite iron for a critical component, steering knuckle. Mater. Des. 43, 532–541 (2013)

  3. 3.

    K. Reza Kashyzadeh, G.H. Farrahi, M. Shariyat, M.T. Ahmadian, Experimental accuracy assessment of various high-cycle fatigue criteria for a critical component with a complicated geometry and multi-input random non-proportional 3D stress components. Eng. Fail. Anal. 90, 534–553 (2018)

  4. 4.

    S.K. Dhamale, N.H. Bhingare, Analyze the failure of a suspension system ball joint. Res. J. Eng. Technol. 10(2), 94–98 (2019)

  5. 5.

    Y.C. Chen, H.H. Huang, C.W. Weng, Failure analysis of a re-design knuckle using topology optimization. Mech. Sci. 10, 465–473 (2019)

  6. 6.

    M.A.B. Marzuki, M.F.M. Azmi, R.L. Jaswadi, Design optimization of automotive component through numerical investigation for additive manufacturing. J. Built Environ. Technol. Eng. 6, 19–26 (2019)

  7. 7.

    M. Shuaib, A. Haleem, L. Kumar, Rohan, D. Sharma, Design and analysis of steering knuckle joint, in Advances in Engineering Design. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, ed. by A. Prasad, S. Gupta, R. Tyagi (Springer, Singapore, 2019)

  8. 8.

    X. Niu, G. Wang, W. Li, Finite element analysis of the car steering knuckle based on ANSYS. Appl. Mech. Mater. 740, 108–111 (2015)

  9. 9.

    E. Azrulhisham, Y.M. Asri, A.W. Dzuraidah, N.M. Nik Abdullah, C.H. Che Hassan, A. Shahrom, Application of road simulator service loads in automotive component durability assessment. Open Ind. Manuf. Eng. J. 4, 1–7 (2011)

  10. 10.

    K. Reza Kashyzadeh, M.J. Ostad-Ahmad-Ghorabi, A. Arghavan, Investigating the effect of road roughness on automotive component. Eng. Fail. Anal. 41, 96–107 (2014)

  11. 11.

    G.K. Triantafyllidis, A. Antonopoulos, A. Spiliotis, S. Fedonos, D. Repanis, Fracture characteristics of fatigue failure of a vehicle’s ductile iron steering knuckle. J. Fail. Anal. Prev. 9, 323–328 (2009)

  12. 12.

    V. Sivananth, S. Vijayarangan, R. Aswathaman, Fatigue and impact analysis of automotive steering knuckle under operating load cases. In Altair Technology Conference, India (2015)

  13. 13.

    M. Kamal, M.M. Rahman, A.G.A. Rahman, Fatigue life evaluation of suspension knuckle using multibody simulation technique. J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 3, 291–300 (2012)

  14. 14.

    A. Carpinteri, A. Spagnoli, S. Vantadori, A review of multiaxial fatigue criteria for random variable amplitude loads. Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct. 40(7), 1007–1036 (2017)

  15. 15.

    M. Shariyat, A fatigue model developed by modification of Gough’s theory, for random non-proportional loading conditions and three-dimensional stress fields. Int. J. Fatigue 30(7), 1248–1258 (2008)

  16. 16.

    A. Fatemi, N. Shamsaei, Multiaxial fatigue: an overview and some approximation models for life estimation. Int. J. Fatigue 33, 948–958 (2011)

  17. 17.

    M. Shariyat, Three energy-based multiaxial HCF criteria for fatigue life determination in components under random non-proportional stress fields. Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct. 32, 785–808 (2009)

  18. 18.

    J. Marzbanrad, A. Yadollahi, Fatigue life of an anti-roll bar of a passenger car. Int. J. Mech. Aerosp. Eng. 6, 274–280 (2012)

  19. 19.

    M. Shariyat, Two new multiaxial HCF criteria based on virtual stress amplitude and virtual mean stress concepts, for complicated geometries and random non-proportional loading conditions. Trans. ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 131, 1–13 (2009)

  20. 20.

    M. Shariyat, New multiaxial HCF criteria based on instantaneous fatigue damage tracing in components with complicated geometries and random non-proportional loading conditions. Int. J. Damage Mech. 19, 659–690 (2010)

  21. 21.

    M. Zoroufi, A. Fatemi, Durability comparison and life predictions of competing manufacturing processes: an experimental study of steering knuckle. In 25th Forging Industry Technical Conference (2004)

  22. 22.

    A. Fatemi, M. Zoroufi, Fatigue Performance Evaluation of Forged Versus Competing Manufacturing Process Technologies: A Comparative Analytical and Experimental Study (American Iron and Steel Institute, Toledo, 2004)

  23. 23.

    M. Zoroufi, A. Fatemi, Experimental durability assessment and life prediction of vehicle suspension components: a case study of steering knuckles. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D J. Autom. Eng. 220(11), 1565–1579 (2006)

  24. 24.

    C.M. Sonsino, R. Franz, Multiaxial fatigue assessment for automotive safety components of cast aluminum EN AC-42000 T6 (G-AlSi7Mg0.3T6) under constant and variable amplitude loading. Int. J. Fatigue 100, 489–501 (2017)

  25. 25.

    K. Reza Kashyzadeh, G.H. Farrahi, M. Shariyat, M.T. Ahmadian, The role of wheel alignment over the fatigue damage accumulation in automotive vehicle steering knuckle. J. Stress Anal. 3(1), 21–33 (2018)

  26. 26.

    K. Reza Kashyzadeh, A new algorithm for fatigue life assessment of automotive safety components based on the probabilistic approach: the case of the steering knuckle. Eng. Sci. Technol. Int J. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2019.05.011

  27. 27.

    R. Hidalgo, J.A. Esnaola, I. Llavori, M. Larranaga, I. Hurtado, N. Herrero-Dorca, Fatigue life estimation of cast aluminum alloys considering the effect of porosity on initiation and propagation phases. Int. J. Fatigue 125, 468–478 (2019)

  28. 28.

    M. Jimenez-Martinez, M. Alfaro-Ponce, Fatigue damage effect approach by artificial neural network. Int. J. Fatigue 124, 42–47 (2019)

  29. 29.

    K. RezaKashyzadeh, G.H. Farrahi, M. Shariyat, M.T. Ahmadian, Experimental and finite element studies on free vibration of automotive steering knuckle. Int. J. Eng. Trans. B Appl. 30(11), 1776–1783 (2017)

Download references


The publication has been prepared with the support of the “RUDN University Program 5-100.”

Author information

Correspondence to K. Reza Kashyzadeh.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Reza Kashyzadeh, K. Effects of Axial and Multiaxial Variable Amplitude Loading Conditions on the Fatigue Life Assessment of Automotive Steering Knuckle. J Fail. Anal. and Preven. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11668-020-00841-w

Download citation


  • Fatigue analysis
  • Axial and multiaxial variable amplitude loading
  • Steering knuckle
  • Finite element method
  • Equivalent stress criterion
  • Probabilistic approach