Advertisement

Analysis of Industrial Safety Helmet Under Low-Velocity Impact

  • Mahadevan LakshmananEmail author
  • D. P. Prathamesh
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

The study focuses on developing a computational model on low-velocity impact which includes the study of different composite materials, and the materials selected include thermosets such as carbon–epoxy, glass–epoxy and thermoplastic such as Twintex material. The above materials were selected because of their high impact resistance properties as well as energy absorption capacity. Furthermore, the damage tolerance of these materials is higher when compared to the polycarbonate material which is presently used. The analysis was carried out using ABAQUS–CAE software where the study was extended to two different types of impact, i.e., linear and oblique, with their damage evolution and analytical validation. The study further focuses on energy absorption capacity, depth of penetration and strain energy absorption by the material under linear and oblique impacts. The analysis revealed the fact that the material Twintex is superior to carbon–epoxy and glass–epoxy with regard to the stress developed. The analysis was carried out by incorporating the Hashin damage criteria also. It was observed that the Twintex material offered more resistance to the depth of penetration in both types of impact. The computational results were compared with analytical results, and they were found to be very close with a minimum deviation.

Keywords

Low-velocity impact Hashin damage ABAQUS Linear and oblique impact 

List of Symbols

XT

Tensile strength for longitudinal

XC

Compression strength for longitudinal

YT

Tensile strength for transverse

YC

Compression strength for transverse

SL

Shear strength for longitudinal

ST

Shear strength for transverse

α1

Coefficient

σ11, σ22, τ12

Stress tensor for effective components

df, dm and ds

Damage internal variables

k1k2

Stiffness of impactor and shell

c1c2

Damping coefficient of impactor and shell

vi

Old position xi and velocities

F12

Forces calculated between 1 and 2

F23

Forces calculated between 2 and 3

h

Height

A

Acceleration

M1 and M2

Mass of impactor and helmet + harness

R1

Radius of impactor

P

Force

α

Deformation

Ec

Contact energy

Ebs

Bending-shear energy

Em

Membrane energy

n

Contact stiffness parameter

g

Acceleration due to gravity

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    A. Kumar, Y.K. Suresh Babu, Design and analysis of industrial helmet. Int. J. Comput. Eng. Res. 3 (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Divakar, R. Nagaraja, H.L. Uruprasad, Mechanical characterization of thermoplastic ABS/glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite. Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol. 4(05), 1127 (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N.J. Mills, A. Gilchrist, Finite element analysis of bicycle helmet oblique impacts. Int. J. Impact Eng 1087–1101, 35 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Mustafa, T.Y. Pang, T. Perret-Ellena, A. Subic, Finite element bicycle helmet models development. Proc. Technol. 20, 91–97 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.G. Kulkarni, X.L. Gao, S.E. Horner, J.Q. Zheng, N.V. David, Ballistic helmets–their design, materials, and performance against traumatic brain injury. Compos. Struct. 101, 313–331 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gilchrist,A, Mills,N.I, Improved side, front and back impact protection for industrial helmets, Health and Safety Executive (Research Report 13/1989), Bootle, 26 pp. (1989)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y.L. Hsu, C.Y. Tai, T.C. Chen, Improving thermal properties of industrial safety helmets. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 26(1), 109–117 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Elanchezhian, B.V. Ramnath, J. Hemalatha, Mechanical behaviour of glass and carbon fibre reinforced composites at varying strain rates and temperatures. Proc. Mater. Science 6, 1405–1418 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Smith, J. Lenkeit, J. Boughton, in Application of finite element analysis to helmet design, International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Proceeding on Impact Biomechanics. SMIA, vol 124 (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K.M. Breedlove, E.L. Breedlove, T.G. Bowman, E.A. Nauman, Impact attenuation capabilities of football and lacrosse helmets. J. Biomech. 49(13), 2838–2844 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F.L. Tan, S.C. Fok, Cooling of the helmet with phase change material. Appl. Therm. Eng. 26(17–18), 2067–2072 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.S. El-Wazery, M.I. El-Elamy, S.H. Zoalfakar, Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polyester composites. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. 14(3), 121–131 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Fuernschuss, E. Kandare, A. Sabo, T.Y. Pang, Rethinking the safety of jockey helmets: a statistical comparison of different composite laminate helmet shells. Proc. Eng. 147, 507–512 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Q. Zhu, C. Zhang, J.L. Curiel-Sosa, T.Q. Bui, X. Xu, Finite element simulation of damage in fiber metal laminates under high velocity impact by projectiles with different shapes. Compos. Struct. 214, 73–82 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K.N. Shivakumar, W. Elber, Prediction of impact force and duration due to low-velocity impact on circular composite laminates, Nasa Langley Research center. Hampton J. Appl. Mech 52(3), 674–680 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Huang, X. Wang, Numerical and experimental investigations on the axial crushing response of composite tubes. Compos. Struct. 91, 22–28 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Shi, T. Swait, C. Soutis, Modelling damage evolution in composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact. Compos. Struct. 94(9), 2902–2913 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Djamaluddin, S. Abdullah, K. Ariffin Ahmad, Zulkifli M. Nopiah, Finite element analysis and crash worthiness optimaztion of foam filled double circular under oblique loading. Lat Am J solids Struct 13, 2176–2189 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Saghafi, G. Minak, A. Zucchelli, Effect of preload on the impact response of curved composite panels. Compos Part B 60, 74–81 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.S. Sundaram, A.A. Eranezhuth, K.V.V.R. Krishna, P.K. Kumar, V. Sivakumar, Ballistic impact performance study on thermoset and thermoplastic composites. J. Fail. Anal. Prev. 17(6), 1260–1267 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Indian Standard, Safety helmets (IS: 2925) (1984)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    CEN, (1992). prEN 397 draft European standard for Industrial Safety Helmets (from British Standards Institution, Manchester)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amrita School of EngineeringAmrita Vishwa VidyapeethamCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations