Fracture Mechanics Approach to Splitting in Low Spring Index Cold Coiling Process
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This paper is an attempt to understand the coil splitting phenomena by means of fracture mechanics. The methods used combine the residual stress measurement with neutron and finite element analysis. The support of the metallurgical evaluation is used as evidence to justify the use of the fracture mechanics concept. Comparing coil springs manufactured at two different manufacturing lines, namely N1 and N6, residual stress distributions in three main directions were measured using neutron diffraction. The results of the residual stress measurement were then converted into the stress intensity factor to enable the analysis in fracture mechanics. The mixed-mode analysis of opening, Mode I, and in-plane shearing, Mode II, is used to solve the splitting problem. The discrepancy between the coil made at N1 and N6 was identified and taken into account in terms of the profile difference. Based on this difference, an FEA simulation was conducted. The results support the experimental finding, which is that the shape of the coil manufactured influences the pattern of the residual stress, which leads to different splitting behaviors. This simple analysis helps practitioners understand why, and how, some cold coiled products split after manufacturing. It is concluded that this very basic concept of fracture mechanics can be used to establish the limit of the cold coiling process by evaluation of the mixed-mode stress intensity factor to the fracture toughness of the material.
KeywordsResidual stress Neutron diffraction Cold forming Stress intensity factor J-Integral
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