Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 864–873 | Cite as

Failure Analysis of Rotorcraft Composite End Plate Structure Under High-Velocity Bird Impact

Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed

Abstract

The paper discusses finite element (FE) modeling for predicting structural damage and correlation studies of dynamic responses in rotorcraft composite structures under high energy bird impact. Before these applications of numerical modeling techniques the simulations are to be accepted by the industry for design development and certification of composite aircraft structures, composites damage models have to be developed and implemented in commercial FE codes, and validation studies at specimen and substructure level have to be performed. Since the experimental tests are expensive and difficult to perform, numerical simulations can only provide significant help in designing high-efficiency bird-proof structures. The design concept is based on the absorption of the major portion of the bird kinetic energy by the composite skins, in order to protect the inner honeycomb core from damage, thus preserving the end plate functionality for safe landing. To this purpose, the end plate skin is fabricated from composite layers, which unfold under the impact load and increase the energy absorption capability. The numerical modeling of bird strike using the Lagrangian approach and smooth particle hydrodynamics formulation and the critical design parameters are considered in carrying out the analysis. A numerical model of this problem has been developed with an explicit finite element code Autodyn. Analysis is carried out for the developed model using the test parameters. Numerical results by means of bird modeling approaches and accurate simulations of composite structures phenomena during impact are substantiated with experimental test results. The results obtained from the analysis and test shows close conformity implying their appropriateness in the simulation of bird strike.

Keywords

Bird strike Failure analysis EOS SPH Bird model 

List of Symbols

ρ0

Density of bird material

Vsh

Velocity of the sound across the shock wave

Vim

Impact velocity

Psh

Shock pressure

Pstag

Stagnation pressure

E

Internal energy

μ

Density ratio

K

Bulk modulus

P

Pressure

C0

Speed of sound in medium

Notes

Acknowledgments

The design of the test fixture and fabrication of test specimens were done in M/s. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. Test support from the design, analysis, and testing team of HAL is gratefully acknowledged. The support from GTRE in carrying out the bird strike tests is also gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), Part 29-Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Rotorcraft Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Design and Airworthiness Requirements for Service Aircraft, DEF STAN 00-970 PART 7/2: Rotorcraft, Leaflet 206 and Leaflet 711Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.S. Wilbeck, Impact Behaviour of Low Strength Projectiles, Air Force Materials Laboratory, Technical Report AFML-TR-77-134, 1977Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.S. Wilbeck, J.L. Rand, The development of a substitute bird model. J. Eng. Power 103, 725 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Ugrcic, Application of the hydrodynamic theory and the finite element method in the analysis of bird strike in a flat barrier. Sci. Tech. Rev. 62(3–4), 28–37 (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M-A Lavoie, A. Gakwaya, M. Nejad Ensan and D.G. Zimcik, Validation of Available Approaches for Numerical Bird Strike Modeling Tools, International Review of Mechanical Engineering (I.RE.M.E.) (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.P. Barber, H.R. Taylor, J.S. Wilbeck, Characterization of Bird Impacts on a Rigid Plate: Part 1”, Technical report AFFDL-TR-75- 5, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (1975Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Cheng, G.D. Roberts, W.K. Binienda, Finite element simulation of soft projectiles impacting composite targets, in 35th International SAMPE technical conference, Dayton, 28 Sept–2 Oct 2003Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T.I. Azevedo, M. Alves, Numerical solution of bird strike impact against balanced fibreglass/epoxy composite plates, in Proceedings of the 19th international congress of mechanical engineering, Brasilia, 5–9 Nov 2007Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L.S. Nizampatman, Models and methods for bird strike load predictions, Ph.D. Dissertation, Faculty of Graduate School, Wichita State University, Wichita, 2007Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ANSYS Inc, ANSYS Autodyn Users Manual, Theory Manual (ANSYS Inc, Canonsburg, 2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Audic, M. Berthillier, J. Bonini, H. Bung, A. Combescure, Prediction of bird impact in hollow fan blades, in 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntville, 16–19 July 2000Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Letellier, H. Bung, P. Galon, M. Berthillier, Bird impact on fan blade analysis using smooth particle hydrodynamics coupled with finite elements, ASME pressure vessels and piping division, symposium on structures under extreme loading conditions, vol 351, pp. 191–195, 1997Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Chevrolet, S. Audic, J. Bonini, Bird impact analysis on a bladed disc, RTOAVT symposium on reduction of milatary vehicle acquisition time and cost through advanced modelling and virtual simulation, Paris, 22–25 April 2002Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.J. Benson, An effective, accurate, simple ALE method for nonlinear finite element programs. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 72, 305–350 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.A. Lavoie, A. Gakwaya, M.N. Ensa, D.G. Zimcik, Review of existing numerical methods and validation procedure available for bird strike modeling, International conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering and Sciences, pp. 111–118, 2007Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Vijayakumar, R. Ravindranath, Bird strike simulation on composite structures, 41st European Rotorcraft Forum 2015, Munich, Germany, 01–04 Sept 2015Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Vijaya Kumar, D. Thenarasu, R. Ravindranath, D.B. Chalwade, Damage behavior of rotorcraft end plate under high velocity bird impact, in 72nd American Helicopter Society and Exhibition, West Palm Beach, FL, 17–19 May 2016Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Heimbs, A. Fischer, C. Fischer, F. Haehnel, J. Markmiller, Towards the accurate numerical prediction of impact damage and residual strength of helicopter sandwich structures, in 11th International Conference on Sandwich Structures (ICSS-11), Fort Lauderdale, FL, 20–23 Mar 2016Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rotary Wing R&D CentreHindustan Aeronautics LimitedBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations