Microstructural Evolution of Plasma-Sprayed Cast Iron Coatings at Different Deposition Temperatures and Its Effect on Corrosion Resistance

  • Ya-Zhe XingEmail author
  • Ke WangEmail author
  • Xiao Feng
  • Qiu-Lan Wei
  • Yong-Nan ChenEmail author
Peer Reviewed


The properties of a thermally sprayed coating are primarily determined by the porosity and inter-lamellar bonding. In this work, three cast iron coatings were prepared by the atmospheric plasma spraying process. In the spraying process, the surface temperatures (deposition temperatures) of the coatings were controlled to be 50 ± 5, 180 ± 6, and 240 ± 8 °C. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Both electrochemical polarization and immersion tests in 0.5 mol/L sulfuric acid solution were employed to evaluate the influence of deposition temperature on the corrosion behavior of the coatings. The results of these tests indicated that the coating deposited at high temperature shows a higher corrosion resistance than the coating deposited at low temperature, which was attributed to the reduced porosity of the coating resulting from the improvements in the flattening of the molten particles and the bonding between lamellae with raising the deposition temperature.


cast iron corrosion resistance microstructure plasma spraying 



This work was supported by the Special Scientific Research Project of Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education (18JK0081).


  1. 1.
    M.F. Morks, Y. Tsunekawa, N.F. Fahim, and M. Okumiya, Microstructure and Friction Properties of Plasma Sprayed Al-Si Alloyed Cast Iron Coatings, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2006, 96, p 170-175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Bobzin, F. Ernst, K. Richardt, T. Schlaefer, C. Verpoort, and G. Flores, Thermal Spraying of Cylinder Bores with the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc Process, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202, p 4438-4443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Uozato, K. Nakata, and M. Ushio, Corrosion and Wear Behaviors of Ferrous Powder Thermal Spray Coatings on Aluminum Alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 169-170, p 691-694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.-J. Li and W.-Z. Wang, Quantitative Characterization of Lamellar Microstructure of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings through Visualization of Void Distribution, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2004, 386, p 10-19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.-J. Li and A. Ohmori, Relationships Between the Microstructure and Properties of Thermally Sprayed Deposits, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2002, 11, p 365-374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. McPherson, A Model for the Thermal Conductivity of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings, Thin Solid Films, 1984, 112, p 89-95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.-J. Li, G.-J. Yang, and A. Ohmori, Relationship Between Particle Erosion and Lamellar Microstructure for Plasma-Sprayed Alumina Coatings, Wear, 2006, 260, p 1166-1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.-J. Tian, S.-W. Yao, X.-T. Luo, C.-X. Li, and C.-J. Li, An Effective Approach for Creating Metallurgical Self-Bonding in Plasma-Spraying of NiCr-Mo Coating by Designing Shell–Core-Structured Powders, Acta Mater., 2016, 110, p 19-30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y.-Z. Xing, Q.-L. Wei, and J.-M. Hao, The Fracture Toughness of Alumina Coatings Plasma-Sprayed at Different In Situ Temperatures, Ceram. Int., 2012, 38, p 4661-4667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.-W. Yao, J.-J. Tian, C.-J. Li, G.-J. Yang, and C.-X. Li, Understanding the Formation of Limited Interlamellar Bonding in Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings Cased on the Concept of Intrinsic Bonding Temperature, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2016, 25, p 1617-1630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Chen and G.-J. Yang, Epitaxial Growth and Cracking Mechanisms of Thermally Sprayed Ceramic Splats, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2018, 27, p 255-268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.-Z. Alam, S.-V. Kamat, V. Jayaram, and D.-K. Das, Tensile Behavior of a Free-Standing Pt-Aluminide (PtAl) Bond Coat, Acta Mater., 2013, 61, p 1093-1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Eskner and R. Sandström, Measurement of the Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature in a Nickel Aluminide Coating by a Miniaturised Disc Bending Test Technique, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 165, p 71-80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.-Z. Alam, S.-V. Kamat, V. Jayaram, and D.-K. Das, Micromechanisms of Fracture and Strengthening in Free-Standing Pt-Aluminide Bond Coats under Tensile Loading, Acta Mater., 2014, 67, p 278-296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Q. Huang, Z.-Z. Wu, H. Wu, S.-P. Ji, Z.-Y. Ma, Z.-C. Wu, P.-H. Chen, J.-Y. Zhu, K.-Y. Ricky, H. Lin, X.-B. Tian, F. Pan, and P.-K. Chu, Corrosion Behavior of ZnO-Reinforced Coating on Aluminum Alloy Prepared by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2019, 374, p 1015-1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    U. Tiringer, J. Kovač, and I. Milošev, Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Pre-treatments on the Morphology and Composition of Surfaces of Aluminium Alloys 7075-T6 and 2024-T3, Corros. Sci., 2017, 119, p 46-69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Edrisy, T. Perry, Y.-T. Cheng, and A.-T. Alpas, Wear of Thermal Spray Deposited Low Carbon Steel Coatings on Aluminum Alloys, Wear, 2001, 251, p 1023-1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W.-J. Kim, S.-H. Ahn, H.-G. Kim, J.-G. Kim, I. Ozdemir, and Y. Tsunekawa, Corrosion Performance of Plasma-Sprayed Cast Iron Coatings on Aluminum Alloy for Automotive Components, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2005, 200, p 1162-1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Li, X.Y. Wang, G. Wei, A. Vaidya, H. Zhang, and S. Sampath, Substrate Melting During Thermal Spray Splat Quenching, Thin Solid Films, 2004, 468, p 113-119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y.-Z. Xing, Z. Liu, G. Wang, X.-H. Li, C.-P. Jiang, Y.-N. Chen, Y. Zhang, X.-D. Song, and M. Dargusch, Improvement of Interfacial Bonding Between Plasma-Sprayed Cast Iron Splat and Aluminum Substrate Through Preheating Substrate, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 316, p 190-198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E.-J. Yang, X.-T. Luo, G.-J. Yang, C.-X. Li, C.-J. Li, and M. Takahashi, Epitaxial Grain Growth during 8YSZ Splat Formation on Polycrystalline YSZ Substrates by Plasma Spraying, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2015, 274, p 37-43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.-W. Yao, T. Liu, C.-J. Li, G.-J. Yang, and C.-X. Li, Epitaxial Growth During the Rapid Solidification of Plasma-Sprayed Molten TiO2 Splat, Acta Mater., 2017, 134, p 66-80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y.-Z. Xing, C.-J. Li, J.-H. Qiao, and G.-X. Wang, Analysis on Rapid Cooling and Epitaxial Solidification of a Plasma-Sprayed Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Splat on a High-Temperature Substrate, Proc. ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Congr. Expos., 2008, 8, p 1837-1844Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y.-Z. Xing, Q.-L. Wei, J.-M. Hao, and C. Shang, Numerical Study on Rapid Solidification of a Plasma-Sprayed Cast Iron Splat on a High-Temperature Substrate, Adv. Mater. Res., 2009, 79-82, p 1129-1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y.-Z. Xing, Q.-L. Wei, C.-P. Jiang, and J.-M. Hao, Abrasive Wear Behavior of Cast Iron Coatings Plasma-Sprayed at Different Mild Steel Substrate Temperatures, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 2012, 19, p 733-738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C.-J. Li, W.-Z. Wang, and Y. He, Dependency of Fracture Toughness of Plasma-spray Al2O3 Coatings on Lamellar Structure, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2004, 13, p 425-431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    P.L. Fauchais, J.V.R. Heberlein, and M.I. Boulos, Thermal Spray Fundamentals—From Powder to Part, Springer, New York, 2014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Dyshlovenko, B. Pateyron, L. Pawlowski, and D. Murano, Numerical Simulation of Hydroxyapatite Powder Behaviour in Plasma Jet, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2004, 179, p 110-117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Wiengmoon, J.T.H. Pearce, and T. Chairuangsri, Relationship Between Microstructure, Hardness and Corrosion Resistance in 20 wt.%Cr, 27 wt.%Cr and 36 wt.%Cr High Chromium Cast Irons, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2011, 125, p 739-748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Tan, Z.-G. Xing, X.-L. Wang, and H.-D. Wang, Deposition Mechanism of Plasma Sprayed Droplets on Textured Surfaces with Different Diameter-to-Distance Ratios, Mater. Des., 2017, 133, p 19-29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    X. Feng, M.-P. Planche, H. Liao, and C. Verdy, Microstructure and Electric Properties of Low-Pressure Plasma Sprayed β-FeSi2 Based Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 318, p 3-10CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education for Pavement Materials, School of Materials Science and EngineeringChang’an UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of Automotive EngineeringShaanxi College of Communication TechnologyXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations