Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp 1974–1982 | Cite as

Manufacturing of Large-Scale Cold-Sprayed Ta Target Material and Its Sputtering Property

  • Gi-Su Ham
  • Dong-Yeol Wi
  • Jun-Mo Yang
  • Kee-Ahn LeeEmail author
Peer Reviewed


The manufacture of high-purity Ta sputtering targets suffers from high processing costs and long manufacturing times because of the high melting point and oxygen affinity. This calls for new process that can reduce the processing cost and manufacturing time. In this study, large-scale (21 × 21 × 0.4 cm3) Ta sputtering material was manufactured using cold spraying. The manufactured cold-sprayed Ta target material underwent actual sputtering to evaluate its properties. Pure Ta powder was used for the cold spray, and the sputtering target material was manufactured under suitable process conditions. The manufactured target material was composed of α-Ta phase that was identical to the powder feedstock. Microstructural observation of the target material confirmed that it was very dense with almost no pores. Vacuum sputtering was performed using two sputtering conditions, viz. 500 W/3 mTorr and 1 kW/3 mTorr. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping analyses were performed on the sputtered thin layers obtained. To identify whether small amounts of impurities were present in the sputtered thin layers, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was performed. In both sputtered thin layers, small amounts of oxygen and impurities were found along with Ta element. Based on these results, this study explored the possibility of manufacturing a target material using cold spraying and its sputtering applications.


cold spray sputtering sputtering target tantalum 



This study was supported by Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) grant funded by the Korea Government (MOTIE) (P0002007, The Competency Development Program for Industry Specialist).


  1. 1.
    R.W. Buckman, New Application for Tantalum and Tantalum Alloys, JOM, 2000, 52, p 40-41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Ino, T. Shinohara, T. Ushiki, and T. Ohmi, Ion Energy, Ion Flux and Ion Species Effects on Crystallographic and Electrical Properties of Sputter-Deposited Ta Thin Films, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 1997, 15, p 2627-2635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K.H. Min, K.C. Chun, and K.B. Kim, Comparative Study of Tantalum and Tantalum Nitrides (Ta2N and TaN) as a Diffusion Barrier for Cu Metallization, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 1996, 14, p 3263-3269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Liu, H. Gong, Y. Wang, J. Wang, A.T.S. Wee, and R. Liu, Annealing Effects of Tantalum Thin Films Sputtered on [001] Silicon Substrate, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 2001, 16, p 85-89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. P. Turner, Tantalum Sputtering Target with Fine Grains and Uniform Texture and Method of Manufacture, 2001, US patent 6,331,233 B1Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Zhang, Fine Grain Tantalum Sputtering Target and Fabrication Process, 2001, US patent 6,193,821 B1Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. P. Alkhimov, A. N. Papyrin, V. F. Kosarev, N. I. Nesterovich, and M. M. Shushpanov, Gas-Dynamic Spraying Method for Applying a Coating, US Patent, 1997, 5,302,414 B1Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T.H. Van Steenkiste, Kinetic Spray: A New Coating Process, Key Eng. Mater., 2001, 197, p 59-86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H.J. Kim, C.H. Lee, and S.Y. Hwang, Fabrication of WC-Co Coatings by Cold Spray Deposition, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2005, 191, p 335-340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. A. Miller, F. C. Dary, M. Gaydos, and G. Rozak, Methods of Manufacturing Large-Area Sputtering Targets by Cold Spray, 2011, US patent 8,703,233 B2Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Won, G. Bae, K. Kang, C. Lee, S.J. Kim, K.A. Lee, and S. Lee, Bonding, Reactivity and Mechanical Properties of the Kinetic-Sprayed Deposition of Al for a Thermally Activated Reactive Cu Liner, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2014, 23, p 818-826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.H. Cho, Y.M. Jin, D.Y. Park, H.J. Kim, I.H. Oh, and K.A. Lee, Manufacture and Properties of Cold Spray Deposited Large Thickness Cu Coating Material for Sputtering Target, Met. Mater. Int., 2011, 17, p 157-166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y.M. Jin, J.H. Cho, D.Y. Park, J.H. Kim, and K.A. Lee, Manufacturing and Macroscopic Properties of Cold Sprayed Cu-In Coating Material for Sputtering Target, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2011, 20, p 497-507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B.C. Choi, D.Y. Park, H.J. Kim, I.H. Oh, and K.A. Lee, Effect of Heat Treatment Environment on the Properties of Cold Sprayed Cu-15 at.% Ga Coating Material for Sputtering Target, J. Korean Powd. Met. Inst., 2011, 18, p 552-561 (in Korean)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Lorenz, M. O’Sullivan, A. Fian, D. Sprenger, B. Lang, and C. Mitterer, A Comparative Study on NbOx Films Reactively Sputtered from Sintered and Cold Gas Sprayed Targets, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2018, 436, p 1157-1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.G. Jeon, H.J. Kim, and K.A. Lee, Manufacturing of Cu Repair Coating Material Using the Kinetic Spray Process and Changes in the Microstructures and Properties by Heat Treatment, J. Korean Powd. Met. Inst., 2014, 21, p 349-354 (in Korean)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. Van Steenkiste and D.W. Gorkiewicz, Analysis of Tantalum Coatings Produced by the Kinetic Spray Process, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2004, 13, p 265-273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Koivuluoto, J. Nakki, and P. Vuoristo, Corrosion Properties of Cold-Sprayed Tantalum Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2009, 18, p 75-82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Kim, G. Bae, and C. Lee, Characteristics of Kinetic Sprayed Ta in Terms of the Deposition Behavior, Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties: Effect of Strain-Rate-Dependent Response of Ta at High Temperature, Mater. Charact., 2018, 141, p 49-58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.H. Lee, J.W. Kim, and K.A. Lee, Fabrication and Microstructure/Properties of Bulk Type Tantalum Material by a Kinetic Spray Process, J. Korean Powder Metall. Inst., 2016, 23, p 8-14 (in Korean)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H.J. Kim, D.H. Jung, S.C. Bae, and C.H. Lee, The Effects of In-Situ Powder Preheating on Cold Sprayed Coatings, J. Korean Inst. Met. Mater., 2005, 43, p 660-666 (in Korean)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Zhang, Y.F. Zhang, P.D. Rack, M.K. Miller, and T.G. Nieh, Nanocrystalline Tetragonal Tantalum Thin Films, Scr. Mater., 2007, 57, p 1032-1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.P. Mammana, I.L. Torriani, M.A. Silveira, and L.A.C. de Almeida, Characterization of Ta Thin Films Obtained by DC Sputtering, Vacuum, 1990, 41, p 1403-1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y.K. Kim, K.S. Kim, H.J. Kim, C.H. Lee, C.H. Park, and K.A. Lee, Microstructure and Room Temperature Compressive Deformation Behavior of Cold-Sprayed High-Strength Cu Bulk Material, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2017, 26, p 1498-1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Riekkinen, J. Molarius, T. Laurila, A. Nurmela, I. Suni, and J.K. Kivilahti, Reactive Sputter Deposition and Properties of TaxN Thin Films, Microelectron. Eng., 2002, 64, p 289-297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Nikravesh, G.H. Akbari, and A. Poladi, A Comprehensive Study on the Surface Tribology of Ta Thin Film Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation: The Effect of TaN Interlayer, Powder and Temperature, Tribol. Int., 2017, 105, p 185-192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C.A. Michaluk, Correlating Discrete Orientation and Grain Size to the Sputter Deposition Properties of Tantalum, J. Electron. Mater., 2002, 31, p p2-p9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Stavrev, D. Fischer, C. Wenzel, K. Drescher, and N. Mattern, Thin Solid Films, 1997, 307, p 79-88CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science EngineeringInha UniversityIncheonKorea
  2. 2.Department of Measurement and AnalysisNational Nanofab CenterDaejeonKorea

Personalised recommendations