Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 28, Issue 1–2, pp 291–304 | Cite as

Performance Assessment of Protective Thermal Spray Coatings for Lightweight Al Brake Rotor Disks

  • Dominique PoirierEmail author
  • Jean-Gabriel Legoux
  • Eric Irissou
  • Danick Gallant
  • Jimmy Jiang
  • Tim Potter
  • James Boileau
Peer Reviewed
  • 63 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate stainless steel thermal spray coatings on aluminum-based substrates. Coating wear, corrosion, and thermal cycling resistance were evaluated using pin-on-disk, cyclic corrosion, and a custom laser-based heating system, respectively, for 300-series stainless steel coatings deposited by arc-sprayed and cold-sprayed systems. Arc spray coatings were found to have equivalent wear and frictional performance as compared to gray cast iron (wear rates of 0.730-1.524 versus 1.294 × 10−5 mm3/m, COF of 0.35-0.36 versus 0.36). However, arc spray coating exhibited low adhesion (~ 30 MPa) and early spalling under thermal cycling conditions, i.e., < 600 cycles, as well as corrosion and delamination. The cold-sprayed coatings were found to have high corrosion and thermal cycling resistance, i.e., above 10,000 cycles. However, cold-sprayed coatings exhibited wear rates higher than those of the cast iron (cold spray wear rates of 4.774 × 10−5 mm3/m). A duplex coating composed of a cold-sprayed bond coat and an arc-sprayed top coat was created and showed good wear properties under simulated extreme braking conditions. The results from this study show that stainless steel coatings on aluminum substrates could be viable substitute for the cast iron in future brake rotors.

Keywords

automotive applications cold spray corrosion cyclic heating wear 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would also like to acknowledge the technical assistance of F. Belval, B. Harvey, J. Sykes, J. F. Alarie, D. de Lagrave, M. Thibodeau, K. Théberge, and M. Lamontagne.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Heuss, N. Müller, W. Sintern, A. Starke, and A. Tschiesner, Lightweight, Heavy Impact, report from McKinsey & Company, February 2012Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Martinsen, S.J. Hu, and B.E. Carlson, Joining of Dissimilar Materials, CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 2015, 64, p 679-699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    O.O. Popoola, M.J. Zaluzec, and R.C. McCune, Novel Powertrain Applications of Thermal Spray Coatings, Surf. Eng., 1998, 14(2), p 107-112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Bobzin, F. Ernst, J. Zwick, T. Schlaefer, D. Cook, K. Nassenstein, A. Schwenk, F. Schreiber, T. Wenz, G. Flores, and M. Hahn, Coating Bores of Light Metal Engine Blocks with a Nanocomposite Material using the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc Thermal Spray Process, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2008, 17(3), p 344-351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Lugscheider, R. Dicks, K. Kowalsky, D. Cook, K. Nassenstein, and C. Verpoort, A Materials System and Method of its Application for the Wear Protection of Aluminium Engine Cylinder Bore Surfaces, Thermal Spray 2004: Advances in Technology and Application, ASM International, May 10-12, 2004 (Osaka, Japan), ASM International, 2004, p 334-340Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.K. Uyyuru, M.K. Surappa, and S. Brusethaug, Effect of Reinforcement Volume Fraction and Size Distribution on the Tribological Behavior of Al-Composite/Brake Pad Tribo-Couple, Wear, 2006, 260, p 1248-1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ratnesh Dwivedi (Lanxide Corp) “Performance of MMC Rotors in Dynamometer Testing”, SAE Paper #940848, March 1994.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Daoud and M.T. Abou El-khair, Wear and Friction Behavior of Sand Cast Brake Rotor Made of A359-20vol% SiC Particle Composites Sliding Against Automobile Friction Material, Tribol. Int., 2010, 43, p 544-553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Natarajan, S. Vijayarangan, and I. Rajendran, Wear Behavior of A356/25SiCp Aluminum Matrix Composites Sliding Against Automobile Friction Material, Wear, 2006, 261, p 812-822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Macnaughta, Cast Iron Brake Discs—A Brief History of their Development and Metallurgy, Technical Report, Foundryman, 1998, p 321-324Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K.M. Shorowordi, A.S.M.A. Haseeb, and J.P. Celis, Velocity Effects on the Wear, Friction and Tribochemistry of Aluminum MMC Sliding Against Phenolic Brake Pad, Wear, 2004, 256, p 1176-1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Poirier, J.M. Lamarre, and J.G. Legoux, Thermal Cycling Assessment of Steel-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings for Al Protection, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2014, 24(1-2), p 175-184Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Sova, S. Grigoriev, A. Okunkova, and I. Smurov, Cold Spray Deposition of 316L Stainless Steel Coatings on Aluminium Surface with Following Laser Post-treatment, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 235, p 283-289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. King, M. Yandouzi, and B. Jodoin, The physics of cold spray, in Modern Cold Spray; Materials, Process and Application, J. Villafuerte, Springer, 2015, p 44-67Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Dallaire, J.G. Legoux, and H. Levert, Abrasion Wear Resistance of Arc-Sprayed Stainless Steel and Composite Stainless Steel Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 1995, 4(2), p 163-168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Poirier, E. Irissou, J.G. Legoux, and D. Gallant, Bi-Layer Iron Coating of Lightweight Metallic Substrate, US patent application US20170204920A1Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. King, M. Yandouzi, and B. Jodoin, The Physics of Cold Spray, Modern Cold Spray; Materials, Process and Application, J. Villafuerte, Springer, 2015, p 107-147Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.J. Blau, Microstructure and Detachment Mechanism of Friction Layers on the Surface of Brake Shoes, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2003, 12(1), p 56-60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Jiang, F.H. Stott, and M.M. Stack, The Role of Triboparticulates in Dry Sliding Wear, Tribol. Int., 1998, 31, p 245-256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Jiang, F.H. Stott, and M.M. Stack, A Mathematical Model for Sliding Wear of Metals at Elevated Temperatures, Wear, 1995, 181-183, p 20-31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Vo, E. Irissou, S. Kudapa, and M. Nestler, Strength and Wear Properties of Stainless Steel Coatings Produced by Cold Spray with Various Powder Sizes, Thermal Spray 2013: Proceedings of the International Thermal spray Conference, Innovative Coating Solutions for the Global Economy, May 13-15, 2013 (Busan, Korea), ASM International, 2013Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Z. Zeng, N. Sakoda, and T. Tajiri, Corrosion Behavior of Wire-Arc-Sprayed Stainless Steel Coating on Mild Steel, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2006, 15(3), p 431-437CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominique Poirier
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jean-Gabriel Legoux
    • 1
  • Eric Irissou
    • 1
  • Danick Gallant
    • 2
  • Jimmy Jiang
    • 3
  • Tim Potter
    • 4
  • James Boileau
    • 4
  1. 1.National Research Council of CanadaBouchervilleCanada
  2. 2.National Research Council of CanadaChicoutimiCanada
  3. 3.National Research Council of CanadaVancouverCanada
  4. 4.Ford Motor CompanyDearbornUSA

Personalised recommendations