Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 28, Issue 1–2, pp 76–86 | Cite as

Experiments, Statistical Analysis, and Modeling to Evaluate the Porosity Influence in SPS Coatings

  • Yongli ZhaoEmail author
  • François Peyraut
  • Marie-Pierre Planche
  • Jan Ilavsky
  • Hanlin Liao
  • Audrey Lasalle
  • Alain Allimant
  • Ghislain Montavon
Peer Reviewed


Suspension plasma spray (SPS) is far more complicated than conventional plasma spray and requires a deep knowledge about the influence of process parameters and their correlations. In this study, YSZ coatings were manufactured by SPS with six different process parameters such as plasma power, suspension mass load, original powder size, substrate surface topology, spray distance, and spray step. Afterward, the porosity of as-prepared coatings was investigated by image method and x-ray transmission technique. A multivariate analysis on the collected experimental data was carried out by employing mathematical statistics methods. The results showed that: (1) coating porosity has a negative correlation with plasma power and suspension mass load and a positive correlation with the original powder size, spray distance, spray step, and substrate roughness; (2) spraying distance is the main factor affecting to coating porosity, followed by suspension mass load and substrate surface roughness, respectively. A linear model for porosity prediction was developed and was verified by experiments. The mechanism by which process parameters influence coating porosity is also discussed.


image method multivariate statistics analysis process parameter porosity suspension plasma spray x-ray transmission 



This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.


  1. 1.
    A. Vardelle, C. Moreau, J. Akedo, H. Ashrafizadeh, C.C. Berndt, J.O. Berghaus, M. Boulos, J. Brogan, A.C. Bourtsalas, A. Dolatabadi, M. Dorfman, T.J. Eden, P. Fauchais, G. Fisher, F. Gaertner, M. Gindrat, R. Henne, M. Hyland, E. Irissou, E.H. Jordan, K.A. Khor, A. Killinger, Y.-C. Lau, C.-J. Li, L. Li, J. Longtin, N. Markocsan, P.J. Masset, J. Matejicek, G. Mauer, A. McDonald, J. Mostaghimi, S. Sampath, G. Schiller, K. Shinoda, M.F. Smith, A.A. Syed, N.J. Themelis, F.-L. Toma, J.P. Trelles, R. Vassen, and P. Vuoristo, The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2016, 25(8), p 1376-1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    U. Klement, J. Ekberg, and S.T. Kelly, 3D Analysis of Porosity in a Ceramic Coating Using X-ray Microscopy, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2017, 26, p 456-463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Zhao, R. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Qian, and T. Wen, Fabrication and Characterization of a Cathode-Supported Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, J. Power Sour., 2009, 192(2), p 552-555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Zhao, Y. Tong, Y. Zhao, T. Yang, F. Yang, Q. Hu, and C. Zhao, Preparation of Ultra-Fine Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 Powder by a Novel Solid State Reaction and Fabrication of Dense Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 Electrolyte Film, Ceram. Int., 2015, 41(8), p 9686-9691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Cernuschi, S. Ahmaniemi, P. Vuoristo, and T. Mantyla, Modelling of Thermal Conductivity of Porous Materials: Application to Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 2004, 24, p 2657-2667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Sathish, M. Geetha, S.T. Aruna, N. Balaji, K.S. Rajam, and R. Asokamani, Sliding Wear Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Nanoceramic Coatings for Biomedical Applications, Wear, 2011, 271(5), p 934-941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Pawlowski, Suspension and Solution Thermal Spray Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2009, 203(19), p 2807-2829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Fauchais, V. Rat, J.-F. Coudert, R. Etchart-Salas, and G. Montavon, Operating Parameters for Suspension and Solution Plasma-Spray Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202(18), p 4309-4317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Zhao, Z. Yu, M.P. Planche, A. Lasalle, A. Allimant, G. Montavon, and H. Liao, Influence of Substrate Properties on the Formation of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2018, 27(1), p 73-83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. Tesar, R. Musalek, J. Medricky, J. Kotlan, F. Lukac, Z. Pala, P. Ctibor, T. Chraska, S. Houdkova, V. Rimal, and N. Curry, Development of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Alumina Coatings with High Enthalpy Plasma Torch, 2017, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2017, 325, p 277-288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Darut, H. Ageorges, A. Denoirjean, and P. Fauchais, Tribological Performances of YSZ Composite Coatings Manufactured by Suspension Plasma Spraying, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 217, p 172-180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.H. Seyedin, E. Zhalehrajabi, M. Ardjmand, A.A. Safekordi, S. Raygan, and N. Rahmanian, Using Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Operating Parameters in a Top-Spray Fluidized Bed Coating System, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2018, 334(Supplement C), p 43-49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N.H.N. Yusoff, M.J. Ghazali, M.C. Isa, A.R. Daud, A. Muchtar, and S.M. Forghani, Optimization of Plasma Spray Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Agglomerated Al2O3–13%TiO2 Coated Mild Steel, Mater. Des., 2012, 39(Supplement C), p 504-508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.O. Oji, P.H. Sunday, O.M. Petinrin, and A.R. Adetunji, Taguchi Optimization of Process Parameters on the Hardness and Impact Energy of Aluminium Alloy Sand Castings, Leonardo J. Sci., 2013, 23, p 1-12Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Taguchi, Introduction to Quality Engineering: Designing Quality into Products and Processes, Tokyo, APO, 1986, p 1-200Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.S. Phadke, Quality Engineering Using Robust Design, Prentice Hall PTR, New Jersey, 1995, p 41-66Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.K. Roy, Design of Experiments Using the Taguchi Approach: 16 Steps to Product and Process Improvement, Wiley, New York, 2001, p 8-24Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R.K. Roy, A Primer on the Taguchi Method, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2010, p 261-293Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.T. Cromer and D.A. Liberman, Anomalous Dispersion Calculations Near to and on the Long-Wavelength Side of an Absorption Edge, Acta Cryst., 1981, A37, p 267-268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Scaffaro, F. Sutera, and F. Lopresti, Using Taguchi Method for the Optimization of Processing Variables to Prepare Porous Scaffolds by Combined Melt Mixing/Particulate Leaching, Mater. Des., 2017, 131(Supplement C), p 334-342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Aubignat, M.P. Planche, A. Allimant, D. Billières, L. Girardot, Y. Bailly, and G. Montavon, Effect of Suspension Characteristics on In-Flight Particle Properties and Coating Microstructures Achieved by Suspension Plasma Spray, J. Phys: Conf. Ser., 2014, 550(1), p 012-019Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongli Zhao
    • 1
    Email author
  • François Peyraut
    • 1
  • Marie-Pierre Planche
    • 1
  • Jan Ilavsky
    • 2
  • Hanlin Liao
    • 1
  • Audrey Lasalle
    • 3
  • Alain Allimant
    • 3
  • Ghislain Montavon
    • 1
  1. 1.ICB, UMR 6303, CNRS, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UTBMBelfortFrance
  2. 2.Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA
  3. 3.Saint-Gobain CREECavaillonFrance

Personalised recommendations