Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 25, Issue 1–2, pp 160–169 | Cite as

Mechanistic Study and Characterization of Cold-Sprayed Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene-Nano-ceramic Composite Coating

  • Kesavan RaviEmail author
  • Yuji Ichikawa
  • Kazuhiro Ogawa
  • Tiana Deplancke
  • Olivier Lame
  • Jean-Yves Cavaille
Peer Reviewed


The cold spray deposition of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder mixed with nano-alumina, fumed nano-alumina, and fumed nano-silica was attempted on two different substrates namely polypropylene and aluminum. The coatings with UHMWPE mixed with nano-alumina, fumed nano-alumina, and fumed nano-silica were very contrasting in terms of coating thickness. Nano-ceramic particles played an important role as a bridge bond between the UHMWPE particles. Gas temperature and pressure played an important role in the deposition. The differential scanning calorimetry results of the coatings showed that UHMWPE was melt-crystallized after the coating.


coating cold spray nano-ceramic particle ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) 



The authors are indebted to Ticona (Oberhausen, Germany) for the generous supply of the UHMWPE sample together with its molecular characteristics. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program, A. Advanced Research Networks, “International research core on smart layered materials and structures for energy saving.”


  1. 1.
    S.P. Sitaram, J.O. Stoffer, and T.J. O’Keefe, Application of Conducting Polymers in Corrosion Protection, J. Coat. Technol., 1997, 69(866), p 65-69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y.Q. Wang, L.P. Huang, W.L. Liu, and J. Li, The Blast Erosion Behaviour of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene, Wear, 1998, 218(1), p 128-133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L.L. Lin, T.H. Ho, and C.S. Wang, Synthesis of Novel Trifunctional Epoxy Resins and their Modification with Polydimethylsiloxane for Electronic Application, Polymer, 1997, 38(8), p 1997-2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Scott, Polymers and the Environment, Vol 19, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1999Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.G. Mikos, G. Sarakinos, J.P. Vacanti, R.S. Langer, and L.G. Cima, U.S. Patent No. 5,514,378, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC, 1996Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.M. Kurtz, The UHMWPE Handbook: Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene in Total Joint Replacement, Academic Press, New York, 2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Wang, A. Essner, V.K. Polineni, C. Stark, and J.H. Dumbleton, Lubrication and Wear of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene in Total Joint Replacements, Tribol. Int., 1998, 31(1), p 17-33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.C. Prevorsek, Y.D. Kwon, and H.B. Chin, Analysis of the Temperature Rise in the Projectile and Extended Chain Polyethylene Fiber Composite Armor During Ballistic Impact and Penetration, Polym. Eng. Sci., 1994, 34(2), p 141-152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Deplancke, O. Lame, F. Rousset, I. Aguili, R. Seguela, and G. Vigier, Diffusion Versus Cocrystallization of Very Long Polymer Chains at Interfaces: Experimental Study of Sintering of UHMWPE Nascent Powder, Macromolecules, 2013, 47(1), p 197-207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Papyrin, Cold Spray Technology, Adv. Mater. Process., 2001, 159(9), p 49-51Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.C. Dykhuizen and M.F. Smith, Gas Dynamic Principles of Cold Spray, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 1998, 7(2), p 205-212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    V.F. Kosarev, S.V. Klinkov, A.P. Alkhimov, and A.N. Papyrin, On Some Aspects of Gas Dynamics of the Cold Spray Process, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2003, 12(2), p 265-281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Grujicic, C.L. Zhao, C. Tong, W.S. DeRosset, and D. Helfritch, Analysis of the Impact Velocity of Powder Particles in the Cold-Gas Dynamic-Spray Process, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2004, 368(1), p 222-230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.L. Coguill, S.L. Galbraith, D.L. Tuss, M. Ivosevic, and L.C. Farrar, U.S. Patent Application 13/506, 215, 2012Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Xu and I.M. Hutchings, Cold Spray Deposition of Thermoplastic Powder, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 201(6), p 3044-3050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Leivo, T. Wilenius, T. Kinos, P. Vuoristo, and T. Mantyla, Properties of Thermally Sprayed Fluoropolymer PVDF, ECTFE, PFA and FEP Coatings, Prog. Org. Coat., 2004, 49(1), p 69-73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Zhang, W.Y. Li, M. Cherigui, C. Zhang, H. Liao, J.M. Bordes, and C. Coddet, Structures and Tribological Performances of PEEK (Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone)-Based Coatings Designed for Tribological Application, Prog. Org. Coat., 2007, 60(1), p 39-44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.R. Lima, N.F. de Souza, and F. Camargo, Study of Wear and Corrosion Performance of Thermal Sprayed Engineering Polymers, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 220, p 140-143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Shahbazi, J. Javadpour, and A.R. Khavandi, Effect of Nanosized Reinforcement Particles on Mechanical Properties of High Density Polyethylene-Hydroxyapatite Composites, Adv. Appl. Ceram., 2006, 105(5), p 253-257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Bhimaraj, D. Burris, W.G. Sawyer, C.G. Toney, R.W. Siegel, and L.S. Schadler, Tribological Investigation of the Effects of Particle Size, Loading and Crystallinity on Poly (Ethylene) Terephthalate Nanocomposites, Wear, 2008, 264(7), p 632-637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Liu, L. Ren, R.D. Arnell, and J. Tong, Abrasive Wear Behavior of Particle Reinforced Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composites, Wear, 1999, 225, p 199-204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. Kontou and M. Niaounakis, Thermo-mechanical Properties of LLDPE/SiO2 Nanocomposites, Polymer, 2006, 47(4), p 1267-1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.T. Yeh, H.M. Yang, and S.S. Huang, Combustion of Polyethylene Filled with Metallic Hydroxides and Crosslinkable Polyethylene, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 1995, 50(2), p p229-p234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    X. Liang, D.M. King, M.D. Groner, J.H. Blackson, J.D. Harris, S.M. George, and A.W. Weimer, Barrier Properties of Polymer/Alumina Nanocomposite Membranes Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition, J. Membr. Sci., 2008, 322(1), p p105-p112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.C. Tjong and G.D. Liang, Electrical Properties of Low-Density Polyethylene/ZnO Nanocomposites, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2006, 100(1), p p1-p5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Ravi, Y. Ichikawa, T. Deplancke, K. Ogawa, O. Lame, and J.Y. Cavaille, Development of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Coating by Cold Spray Technique, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2015, 24(6), p 1015-1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Yang, A. Sliva, A. Banerjee, R.N. Dave, and R. Pfeffer, Dry Particle Coating for Improving the Flowability of Cohesive Powders, Powder Technol., 2005, 158(1), p 21-33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    W. Lortz, G. Perlet, W. Will, and S. Reitz, U.S. Patent No. 7,834,076, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC, 2010Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Z.D. Liu, J.Y. Li, J. Jiang, Z.N. Hong, and R.K. Xu, Adhesion of Escherichia coli to Nano-Fe/Al Oxides and its Effect on the Surface Chemical Properties of Fe/Al Oxides, Colloids Surf., B, 2013, 110, p 289-295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Technical Information, Degussa AG, Frankfurt, TI 1283Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Technical Information, Degussa AG, Frankfurt, TI 1340Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H.D. Chanzy, E. Bonjour, and R.H. Marchessault, Nascent Structures During the Polymerization of Ethylene, Colloid Polym. Sci., 1974, 252(1), p 8-14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Rastogi, D.R. Lippits, G.W. Peters, R. Graf, Y. Yao, and H.W. Spiess, Heterogeneity in Polymer Melts from Melting of Polymer Crystals, Nat. Mater., 2005, 4(8), p 635-641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. Jauffre `s, O. Lame, G. Vigier, and F. Doré, How Nascent Structure of Semicrystalline Polymer Powders Enhances Bulk Mechanical Properties, Macromolecules, 2008, 41(24), p 9793-9801CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kesavan Ravi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yuji Ichikawa
    • 1
  • Kazuhiro Ogawa
    • 1
  • Tiana Deplancke
    • 2
  • Olivier Lame
    • 2
  • Jean-Yves Cavaille
    • 2
  1. 1.Fracture and Reliability Research InstituteTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.Materials Engineering and Science (MATEIS), CNRS, INSA-Lyon UMR5510Université de LyonVilleurbanneFrance

Personalised recommendations