Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 22, Issue 2–3, pp 221–232 | Cite as

Multiple-Approach Evaluation of WSP Coatings Adhesion/Cohesion Strength

  • Radek Mušálek
  • Václav Pejchal
  • Monika Vilémová
  • Jiří Matějíček
Peer Reviewed


Adhesion/cohesion testing represents one of the most common methods for benchmarking and optimization of thermal spray coatings. However, owing to the inhomogeneous coating microstructure, such testing may be quite troublesome. In this study, adhesion/cohesion strength of representative metallic and ceramic coatings deposited by water-stabilized plasma (WSP) spraying was evaluated by four different methods: tensile adhesion test, pin test, tubular coating tensile test, and shear test. Combination of various methods enabled the evaluation of the coating adhesion/cohesion strength under different loading conditions. Limitations and benefits of each method for testing of WSP coatings are demonstrated. Dominating failure micromechanisms were determined by supplementary fractographic analysis.


adhesion testing adhesive strength alumina cohesion stainless steel water-stabilized plasma 



This study was supported by the Grant No. P108/12/P552 (Czech Science Foundation).


  1. 1.
    J.R. Davis, Handbook of Thermal Spray Technology, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 2004, p 338Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Marot, J. Lesage, P. Démarécaux, M. Hadad, S. Siegmann, and M.H. Staia, Interfacial Indentation and Shear Tests to Determine the Adhesion of Thermal Spray Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 201(5), p 2080-2085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    “Standard Test Method for Adhesion or Cohesion Strength of Thermal Spray Coatings”, ASTM C633-01, ASTM, 2008, 7 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    “Thermal Spraying—Determination of Tensile Adhesive Strength”, EN 582, 1996, CEN, 12 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.H. Leigh and C.C. Berndt, A Test for Coating Adhesion on Flat Substrates—A Technical Note, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 1994, 3(2), p 184-190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.R.C. Lima and J.M. Guilemany, Adhesion Improvements of Thermal Barrier Coatings with HVOF Thermally Sprayed Bond Coats, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2007, 201(8), p 4694-4701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Wang, C. Li, and A. Ohmori, Influence of Substrate Roughness on the Bonding Mechanisms of High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Sprayed Coatings, Thin Solid Films, 2005, 485(1-2), p 141-147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Watanabe, S. Kuroda, K. Yokoyama, T. Inoue, and Y. Gotoh, Modified Tensile Adhesion Test for Evaluation of Interfacial Toughness of HVOF Sprayed Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202(9), p 1746-1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    “Thermal Spraying—Determination of Shear Load Resistance of Thermally Sprayed Coatings”, EN 15340, 2007, CEN, 15 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Siegmann, M. Dvorak, H. Grützner, K. Nassenstein, and A. Walter, Shear Testing for Characterizing the Adhesive and Cohesive Coating Strength without the Need of Adhesives, Thermal Spray Connects: Explore Its Surfacing Potential!, E. Lugscheider, Ed., May 2-4, 2005, (Basel), DVS Deutscher Verband für Schweißen, 2005, p 823-829Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Era, F. Otsubo, T. Uchida, S. Fukuda, and K. Kishitake, A Modified Shear Test for Adhesion Evaluation of Thermal Sprayed Coating, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1998, 251(1-2), p 166-172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Binder, J. Gottschalk, M. Kollenda, F. Gärtner, and T. Klassen, Influence of Impact Angle and Gas Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Titanium Cold Spray Deposits, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2011, 20(1-2), p 234-242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Schmidt, F. Gärtner, H. Assadi, and H. Kreye, Development of a Generalized Parameter Window for Cold Spray Deposition, Acta Mater., 2006, 54(3), p 729-742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Kishi, S. Kuroda, T. Inoue, T. Fukushima, and H. Yumoto, Tensile Test Specimens with a Circumferential Precrack for Evaluation of Interfacial Toughness of Thermal-Sprayed Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2008, 17(2), p 228-233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Chicot, P. Araujo, N. Horny, A. Tricoteaux, and J. Lesage, Application of the Interfacial Indentation Test for Adhesion Toughness Determination, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2005, 200(1-4), p 174-177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Chicot, P. Démarécaux, and J. Lesage, Apparent Interface Toughness of Substrate and Coating Couples from Indentation Tests, Thin Solid Films, 1996, 283(1-2), p 151-157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L.C. Erickson, R. Westergård, U. Wiklund, N. Axén, H.M. Hawthorne, and S. Hogmark, Cohesion in Plasma-Sprayed Coatings—A Comparison between Evaluation Methods, Wear, 1998, 214(1), p 30-37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Vencl, S. Arostegui, G. Favaro, F. Zivic, M. Mrdak, S. Mitrović, and V. Popovic, Evaluation of Adhesion/Cohesion Bond Strength of the Thick Plasma Spray Coatings by Scratch Testing on Coatings Cross-Sections, Tribol. Int., 2011, 44(11), p 1281-1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.C. Berndt and C.K. Lin, Measurement of Adhesion for Thermally Sprayed Materials, J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 1993, 7(12), p 1235-1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Hadad, M. Hockauf, L.W. Meyer, G. Marot, J. Lesage, R. Hitzek, and S. Siegmann, Adhesion Evaluation of Multilayered Based WC-Co-Cr Thermally Sprayed Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202(18), p 4399-4405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Hadad, G. Marot, P. Demarecaux, J. Lesage, J. Michler, and S. Siegmann, Adhesion Tests for Thermal Spray Coatings: Application Range of Tensile, Shear and Interfacial Indentation Methods, Thermal Spray Connects: Explore Its Surfacing Potential!, E. Lugscheider, Ed., May 2-4, 2005 (Basel), DVS Deutscher Verband für Schweißen, 2005, p 759-764Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Marot, P. Démarécaux, J. Lesage, M. Hadad, S. Siegmann, and M.H. Staia, The Interfacial Indentation Test to Determine Adhesion and Residual Stresses in NiCr VPS Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202(18), p 4411-4416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Weiss, Adhesion of Advanced Overlay Coatings: Mechanisms and Quantitative Assessment, Surf. Coat. Technol., 1995, 71(2), p 201-207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    D.J. Greving, J.R. Shadley, and E.F. Rybicki, Effects of Coating Thickness and Residual Stresses on the Bond Strength of ASTM C633-79 Thermal Spray Coating Test Specimens, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 1994, 3(4), p 371-378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Mušálek, O. Kovářík, and J. Matějíček, In-situ Observation of Crack Propagation in Thermally Sprayed Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2010, 205(7), p 1807-1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Vilémová, J. Siegl, J. Matějíček, and R. Mušálek, Effect of the Grit Blasting Exposure Time on the Adhesion of Al2O3 and 316L Coatings, Thermal Spray 2011: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference, Sept 27-29, 2011 (Hamburg), DVS Deutscher Verband für Schweißen, 2011, p 1001-1006Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radek Mušálek
    • 1
  • Václav Pejchal
    • 1
  • Monika Vilémová
    • 1
  • Jiří Matějíček
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials EngineeringInstitute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.iPraha 8Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations