Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 21, Issue 3–4, pp 550–560 | Cite as

Comparison of Oxidation and Microstructure of Warm-Sprayed and Cold-Sprayed Titanium Coatings

  • KeeHyun KimEmail author
  • Seiji Kuroda
  • Makoto Watanabe
  • RenZhong Huang
  • Hirotaka Fukanuma
  • Hiroshi Katanoda


Thick titanium coatings were prepared by the warm spraying (WS) and cold spraying (CS) processes to investigate the oxidation and microstructure of the coating layers. Prior to the coating formations, the temperature and velocity of in-flight titanium powder particles were numerically calculated. Significant oxidation occurred in the WS process using higher gas temperature conditions with low nitrogen flow rate, which is mixed to the flame jet of a high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray gun in order to control the temperature of the propellant gas. Oxidation, however, decreased strikingly as the nitrogen flow rate increased. In the CS process using nitrogen or helium as a propellant gas, little oxidation was observed. Even when scanning electron microscopy or an x-ray diffraction method did not detect oxides in the coating layers produced by WS using a high nitrogen flow rate or by CS using helium, the inert gas fusion method revealed minor increases of oxygen content from 0.01 to 0.2 wt.%. Most of the cross-sections of the coating layers prepared by conventional mechanical polishing looked dense. However, the cross-sections prepared by an ion-milling method revealed the actual microstructures containing small pores and unbounded interfaces between deposited particles.


cold spraying ion milling microstructure oxidation warm spraying x-ray diffraction 



This research was supported by Nanotechnology Network program and World Premier International Research Center Initiative on Materials Nanoarchitectonics, MEXT, Japan, and KAKENHI 19360335.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • KeeHyun Kim
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Seiji Kuroda
    • 1
  • Makoto Watanabe
    • 1
  • RenZhong Huang
    • 3
  • Hirotaka Fukanuma
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Katanoda
    • 4
  1. 1.National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)TsukubaJapan
  2. 2.University of BirminghamBirminghamUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.Plasma Giken Co. Ltd.OosatoJapan
  4. 4.Kagoshima UniversityKorimotoJapan

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