Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 75–82 | Cite as

Corrosion Properties of Cold-Sprayed Tantalum Coatings

  • Heli Koivuluoto
  • Jonne Näkki
  • Petri Vuoristo
Peer Reviewed


Cold spraying enables the production of pure and dense metallic coatings. Denseness (impermeability) plays an important role in the corrosion resistance of coatings, and good corrosion resistance is based on the formation of a protective oxide layer in case of passivating metals and metal alloys. The aim of this study was to investigate the microstructural details, denseness, and corrosion resistance of two cold-sprayed tantalum coatings with a scanning electron microscope and corrosion tests. Polarization measurements were taken to gain information on the corrosion properties of the coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 40 wt.% H2SO4 solutions at room temperature and temperature of 80 °C. Standard and improved tantalum powders were tested with different spraying conditions. The cold-sprayed tantalum coating prepared from improved tantalum powder with advanced cold spray system showed excellent corrosion resistance: in microstructural analysis, it showed a uniformly dense microstructure, and, in addition, performed well in all corrosion tests.


cold spraying corrosion properties microstructure tantalum 



We thank Mr. Werner Krömmer, of Linde AG Gas, for the spray coatings and for his valuable advice. We also thank Dr. Karri Osara, of Outotec Research Oy, for organizing chemical analysis of the powders. This study was funded by Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (TEKES) and a group of Finnish industrial companies.


  1. 1.
    C. Borchers, F. Gärtner, T. Stoltenhoff, H. Assadi, and H. Kreye, 2003 Microstructural and macroscopic properties of cold sprayed copper coatings, Journal of Applied Physics, 93(12), p, 10064-10070CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.G. Maev and V. Leshchynsky, Air Gas Dynamic Spraying of Powder Mixtures: Theory and Application, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 2006, 15(2), p 198–205CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    V.K. Champagne, Ed., The Cold Spray Materials Deposition Process: Fundamentals and Applications, Woodhead publishing limited, Cambridge, England, 2007, 362 pGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Stoltenhoff, H. Kreye, and H.J. Richter, An Analysis of the Cold Spray Process and its Coatings, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 2002, 11(4), p 542–550CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.C. Dykhuizen and M.F. Smith, Gas Dynamic Principles of Cold Spray, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 1998, 7(2), p 205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Balani, T. Laha, A. Agarwal, J. Karthikeyan, and N. Munroe, Effect of carrier gases on microstructural and electrochemical behavior of cold-sprayed 1100 aluminum coating, Surface & Coatings Technology, 2005, 195, p 272–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.A. Jones, 1996 Principles and Prevention of Corrosion 2nd ed, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, p. 572Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.E.J. Talbot and J.D.R. Talbot, Corrosion Science and Technology, CRC Press LLC, 1998, p 390Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ASM Metals Handbook Online Volume 2, Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Pure Metals, Properties of Pure Metals, Tantalum Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ASM Metals Handbook Online Volume 13B, Corrosion: Materials, Corrosion of nonferrous Alloys and Speciality Products, Corrosion of Tantalum and Tantalum Alloys Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Zein El Abedin, U. Welz-Biermann, and F. Endres, A study on the electrodeposition of tantalum on NiTi alloy in an ionic liquid and corrosion behaviour of the coated alloy, Electrochemistry Communications, 2005, 7, p 941–946Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Maeng, L. Axe, T.A. Tyson, L. Gladczuk, and M. Sosnowski, Corrosion behaviour of magnetron sputtered α- and β-Ta coatings on AISI 4340 steel as a function of coating thickness, Corrosion Science, 2006, 48, p 2154–2171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Kinos, S.L. Chen, P. Siitonen, and P. Kettunen, Densification of Plasma-Sprayed Titanium and Tantalum Coatings, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 1996, 5(4), p 439–444CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K.A. de Souza and A. Robin, Influence of concentration and temperature on the corrosion behavior of titanium, titanium-20 and 40% tantalum alloys and tantalum in sulfuric acid solutions, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2007, 103, p 351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Hoell and P. Richter, KINETIKS® 4000 – New Perspective with Cold Spraying, Thermal Spray 2008: Thermal Spray Crossing Borders, DVS, June 2-4, 2008 (Maastricht, The Netherlands), p 2Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. Schmidt, F. Gärtner, and H. Kreye, New Developments in Cold Spray Based on Higher Gas- and Particle Temperatures, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 2006, 15(4), p 488–494CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Richter and H. Höll, Latest Technology for Commercially Available Cold Spray Systems, Thermal Spray 2006: Building on 100 Years of Success, B.R. Marple, M.M. Hyland, Y.-C. Lau, R.S. Lima, and J. Voyer, Eds., May 15-18 (Seattle, Washington, USA), ASM International, p 3Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Kreye, T. Schmidt, F. Gärtner, and T. Stoltenhoff, The Cold Spray Process and Its Optimization, Thermal Spray 2006: Building on 100 Years of Success, B.R. Marple, M.M. Hyland, Y.-C. Lau, R.S. Lima, and J. Voyer, Eds., May 15-18 (Seattle, Washington, USA), ASM International, p 5Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Van Steenkiste and D.W. Gorkiewicz, Analysis of Tantalum Coatings Produced by the Kinetic Spray Process, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 2004, 13(2), p 265–273CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T.H. Van Steenkiste, J.R. Smith, and R.E. Teets, 2002 Aluminum Coatings via Kinetic Spray with Relatively Large Powder Particles, Surface and Coatings Technology, 154, 237–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Koivuluoto, J. Lagerbom, and P. Vuoristo, Microstructural Studies of Cold Sprayed Copper, Nickel, and Copper-30% Nickel Coatings, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 2007, 16(4), p 488–497CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Standard Test Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing, B117-90, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, p 19-25Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    P.A. Schweitzer, Ed., Corrosion Engineering Handbook, Marcel Dekker, 1996, p 736Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    W.S. Tait, 1994 An Introduction to Electrochemical Corrosion Testing for Practicing Engineers and Scientists, Pair O Docs Publications, Racine, WI, p. 138Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heli Koivuluoto
    • 1
  • Jonne Näkki
    • 2
  • Petri Vuoristo
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials ScienceTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland
  2. 2.Technology Centre KETEK OyKokkolaFinland

Personalised recommendations