Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 64–83 | Cite as

Thermal Spray Coatings for Fusion Applications—Review

  • Jiří Matějíček
  • Pavel Chráska
  • Jochen Linke
Peer Reviewed

Thermonuclear fusion is a potential source of cleaner and safer energy for the future. Its technological realization depends on the development of materials able to survive and function in extreme conditions. This article reviews the applications of thermally sprayed coatings for fusion reactor materials. First, the principle and purpose of fusion is briefly introduced, and technological objectives are mentioned. Material-environment interactions are summarized, together with materials requirements and the role of coatings. Then, specific applications—e.g., the plasma facing components—are reviewed, focusing on application issues as well as issues related to thermal spray processing and specific properties of the respective materials. An overview of specific materials testing methods is also provided.


beryllium boron carbide plasma facing components plasma sprayed coatings thermonuclear fusion tungsten 


Processing techniques


atmospheric plasma spraying


controlled atmosphere plasma spraying


chemical densification coating


chemical vapor deposition


chemical vapor reaction


detonation jet spraying


hot-dip aluminizing


hot isostatic pressing


high pressure plasma spraying


hybrid stabilized plasma


heat treatment


low pressure plasma spraying


laser sintering


powder metallurgy


plasma spraying


physical vapor deposition


vacuum plasma spraying


water stabilized plasma



carbon fiber composite


functionally graded material


oxygen-free high conductivity copper


stainless steel

Materials properties


coefficient of thermal expansion


ductile-brittle transition temperature


thermal conductivity


tritium permeation reduction factor

Fusion-oriented devices


Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment


Czech Academy of Sciences Torus


Demonstration Reactor


Frascati Tokamak Upgrade


International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, also ‘the way’ in Latin


Joint European Torus


Next European Torus


Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment


Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research


Tore Junta II


Wendelstein 7-X

Terms related to fusion technology


edge localized mode


high heat flux


plasma facing component


plasma facing material


vertical displacement event



finite element modeling


room temperature


scanning electron microscopy


substrate temperature


X-ray diffraction



The research and development of plasma sprayed B4C and W coatings for fusion applications was supported in part by EFDA Task DV4/04 (TW0) in 2000 and EFDA Task TW5-TVM-PSW in 2005, respectively.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiří Matějíček
    • 1
  • Pavel Chráska
    • 1
  • Jochen Linke
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Plasma PhysicsPrahaCzech Republic
  2. 2.Forschungszentrum JuelichJuelichGermany

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