Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 64–83 | Cite as

Thermal Spray Coatings for Fusion Applications—Review

  • Jiří Matějíček
  • Pavel Chráska
  • Jochen Linke
Peer Reviewed

Thermonuclear fusion is a potential source of cleaner and safer energy for the future. Its technological realization depends on the development of materials able to survive and function in extreme conditions. This article reviews the applications of thermally sprayed coatings for fusion reactor materials. First, the principle and purpose of fusion is briefly introduced, and technological objectives are mentioned. Material-environment interactions are summarized, together with materials requirements and the role of coatings. Then, specific applications—e.g., the plasma facing components—are reviewed, focusing on application issues as well as issues related to thermal spray processing and specific properties of the respective materials. An overview of specific materials testing methods is also provided.

Keywords

beryllium boron carbide plasma facing components plasma sprayed coatings thermonuclear fusion tungsten 

Nomenclature

Processing techniques

APS

atmospheric plasma spraying

CAPS

controlled atmosphere plasma spraying

CDC

chemical densification coating

CVD

chemical vapor deposition

CVR

chemical vapor reaction

DJ

detonation jet spraying

HDA

hot-dip aluminizing

HIP

hot isostatic pressing

HPPS

high pressure plasma spraying

HSP

hybrid stabilized plasma

HT

heat treatment

LPPS

low pressure plasma spraying

LS

laser sintering

PM

powder metallurgy

PS

plasma spraying

PVD

physical vapor deposition

VPS

vacuum plasma spraying

WSP

water stabilized plasma

Materials

CFC

carbon fiber composite

FGM

functionally graded material

OFHC

oxygen-free high conductivity copper

SS

stainless steel

Materials properties

CTE

coefficient of thermal expansion

DBTT

ductile-brittle transition temperature

TC

thermal conductivity

T-PRF

tritium permeation reduction factor

Fusion-oriented devices

ASDEX

Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment

CASTOR

Czech Academy of Sciences Torus

DEMO

Demonstration Reactor

FTU

Frascati Tokamak Upgrade

ITER

International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, also ‘the way’ in Latin

JET

Joint European Torus

NET

Next European Torus

SSPX

Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment

TEXTOR

Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research

TJ-II

Tore Junta II

W7-X

Wendelstein 7-X

Terms related to fusion technology

ELM

edge localized mode

HHF

high heat flux

PFC

plasma facing component

PFM

plasma facing material

VDE

vertical displacement event

Miscellaneous

FEM

finite element modeling

RT

room temperature

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

TS

substrate temperature

XRD

X-ray diffraction

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research and development of plasma sprayed B4C and W coatings for fusion applications was supported in part by EFDA Task DV4/04 (TW0) in 2000 and EFDA Task TW5-TVM-PSW in 2005, respectively.

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Copyright information

© ASM International 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiří Matějíček
    • 1
  • Pavel Chráska
    • 1
  • Jochen Linke
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Plasma PhysicsPrahaCzech Republic
  2. 2.Forschungszentrum JuelichJuelichGermany

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