Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The Interface Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Niobium-316L Stainless Steel Explosively Welded Composite Plate

  • 14 Accesses


In order to manufacture stainless steel helium vessels for the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, niobium-316L stainless steel composite plates were fabricated by explosive welding technique. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite plates were investigated both right after explosive welding and after annealing. The microstructure measurement results demonstrated that there was not any brittle intermetallic layer formed nor any diffusion phenomenon observed after heat treatment processes. Due to the plastic deformation and work hardening near the interface, the hardness of the composite plates was higher near the bonding interface than inside the bulk metal regions. Meanwhile, ultimate tensile strength and shear strength of the composite plate reached their maximum values when the sample was annealed at 873 K for 10 h at room temperature. Charpy impact test results at liquid helium results showed that the toughness of composite plate meets the requirements from the SRF cavities’ helium vessels fabrication.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16


  1. 1.

    L.J. Wen, S.H. Zhang, Y.M. Li, R.X. Wang, H. Guo, C. Zhang, H. Jia, T.C. Jiang, C.L. Li, and Y. He, Study of Medium Beta Elliptical Cavities for CADS, Chin. Phys. C, 2016, 40, p 027004

  2. 2.

    C.E. Reece, Continuous Wave Superconducting Radio Frequency Electron Linac for Nuclear Physics Research, Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, 2016, 19, p 24801

  3. 3.

    C. Zhang, S.B. He, R.X. Wang, S.H. Zhang, Y. He, and H.W. Zhao, Structural Analysis of Quarter-Wave Resonators in IMP, Chin. Phys. C, 2013, 37, p 107002

  4. 4.

    P. Pierini, M. Bertucci, A. Bosotti, J.F. Chen, C.G. Maiano, P. Michelato, L. Monaco, M. Moretti, C. Pagani, R. Paparella, and D. Sertore, Fabrication and Vertical Test Experience of the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser 3.9 GHz Superconducting Cavities, Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, 2017, 20, p 042006

  5. 5.

    A. Kumar, P. Ganesh, R. Kaul, V.K. Bhatnagar, K. Yedle, and P. Ram Sankar, A New Vacuum Brazing Route for Niobium-316L Stainless Steel Transition Joints for Superconducting RF Cavities, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2015, 24, p 952–963

  6. 6.

    F. Barkov, A. Romanenko, and A. Grassellino, Direct Observation of Hydrides Formation in Cavity-Grade Niobium, Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, 2012, 15, p 122001

  7. 7.

    P. Dhakal, S. Chetri, S. Balachandran, P.J. Lee, and G. Ciovati, Effect of Low Temperature Baking in Nitrogen on the Performance of a Niobium Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity, Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, 2018, 21, p 032001

  8. 8.

    A. Durgutlu, B. Gülenç, and F. Findik, Examination of Copper/Stainless Steel Joints Formed by Explosive Welding, Mater. Des., 2005, 26, p 497–507

  9. 9.

    A. Kumar, P. Ganesh, R. Kaul, P. Chinna Rao, D.P. Yadav, B.K. Sindal, R.K. Gupta, R. Sridhar, S.C. Joshi, and B. Singh, Process Development for Vacuum Brazed Niobium-316L Stainless Steel Transition Joints for Superconducting Cavities, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 2016, 139, p 015001

  10. 10.

    B. Zhu, W. Liang, and X. Li, Interfacial Microstructure, Bonding Strength and Fracture of Magnesium-Aluminum Laminated Composite Plates Fabricated by Direct Hot Pressing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2011, 528, p 6584–6588

  11. 11.

    Y. Taran, A.M. Balagurov, B. Sabirov, V. Davydov, and A.M. Venter, Neutron Diffraction Investigation of Residual Stresses Induced in Niobium-Steel Bilayer Pipe Manufactured by Explosive Welding, Mater. Sci. Forum, 2013, 768-769, p 697–704

  12. 12.

    F. Findik, Recent Developments in Explosive Welding, Mater. Des., 2011, 32, p 1081–1093

  13. 13.

    Y. Yang, X.M. Zhang, Z.H. Li, and Q.Y. Li, Adiabatic Shear Band on the Titanium Side in the Ti/Mild Steel Explosive Cladding Interface, Acta Mater., 1996, 44, p 561–565

  14. 14.

    S.A.A. Akbari Mousavi, S.T.S. Al-Hassani, and A.G. Atkins, Bond Strength of Explosively Welded Specimens, Mater. Des., 2008, 29, p 1334–1352

  15. 15.

    A. Akbarimousavi and S. Alhassani, Numerical and Experimental Studies of the Mechanism of the Wavy Interface Formations in Explosive/Impact Welding, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2005, 53, p 2501–2528

  16. 16.

    S.A.A. Akbari Mousavi and P. Farhadi Sartangi, Experimental Investigation of Explosive Welding of CP-Titanium/AISI, 304 Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2009, 30, p 459–468

  17. 17.

    A. Durgutlu, H. Okuyucu, and B. Gulenc, Investigation of effect of the Stand-Off Distance on Interface Characteristics of Explosively Welded Copper and Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2008, 29, p 1480–1484

  18. 18.

    M. Honarpisheh, M. Asemabadi, and M. Sedighi, Investigation of Annealing Treatment on the Interfacial Properties of Explosive-Welded Al/Cu/Al Multilayer, Mater. Des., 2012, 37, p 122–127

  19. 19.

    M. Sedighi and M. Honarpisheh, Experimental Study of Through-Depth Residual Stress in Explosive Welded Al-Cu-Al Multilayer, Mater. Des., 2012, 37, p 577–581

  20. 20.

    N. Zhang, W. Wang, X. Cao, and J. Wu, The Effect of Annealing on the Interface Microstructure and Mechanical Characteristics of AZ31B/AA6061 Composite Plates Fabricated by Explosive Welding, Mater. Des., 2015, 65, p 1100–1109

  21. 21.

    M.H. Bina, F. Dehghani, and M. Salimi, Effect of Heat Treatment on Bonding Interface in Explosive Welded Copper/Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2013, 45, p 504–509

  22. 22.

    S.A.A. Akbari Mousavi and P.F. Sartangi, Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Interface Microstructure of Explosively Welded Titanium-Stainless Steel Composite, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2008, 494, p 329–336

  23. 23.

    V.I. Lysak and S.V. Kuzmin, Lower Boundary in Metal Explosive Welding. Evolution of Ideas, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2012, 212, p 150–156

  24. 24.

    R. Kaçar and M. Acarer, Microstructure-Property Relationship in Explosively Welded Duplex Stainless Steel-Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2003, 363, p 290–296

  25. 25.

    M. Acarer and B. Demir, An Investigation of Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Explosive Welded Aluminum-Dual Phase Steel, Mater. Lett., 2008, 62, p 4158–4160

  26. 26.

    Y. Kaya and N. Kahraman, An Investigation into the Explosive Welding/Cladding of Grade A Ship Steel/AISI, 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2013, 52, p 367–372

  27. 27.

    Q. Zhou, J.R. Feng, and P.W. Chen, Numerical and Experimental Studies on the Explosive Welding of Tungsten Foil to Copper, Materials, 2017, 10, p 984

  28. 28.

    F. Haddad, S.E. Amara, and R. Kesri, Liquidus Surface Projection of the Fe-Nb-C System in the Iron-Rich Corner, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2008, 39, p 1026–1033

  29. 29.

    C.G. Schon and J.A.S. Tenorio, The Chemistry of Iron-Niobium Intermetallics, Intermetallics, 1996, 4, p 211–216

  30. 30.

    H.B. Xia, S.G. Wang, and H.F. Ben, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti/Al Explosive Cladding, Mater. Des., 2014, 56, p 1014–1019

  31. 31.

    D.M. Fronczek, J. Wojewoda-Budka, R. Chulist, A. Sypien, A. Korneva, Z. Szulc, N. Schell, and P. Zieba, Structural Properties of Ti/Al Clads Manufactured by Explosive Welding and Annealing, Mater. Des., 2016, 91, p 80–89

  32. 32.

    H. Paul, L. Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, M. Miszczyk, and M. Prażmowski, Microstructure and Phase Transformations Near the Bonding Zone of Al/Cu Clad Manufactured by Explosive Welding, Arch. Metall. Mater., 2012, 57, p 1151–1162

  33. 33.

    K. Raghukandan, Analysis of the Explosive Cladding of Cu-Low Carbon Steel Plates, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2003, 139, p 573–577

  34. 34.

    N. Kahraman, B. Gülenç, and F. Findik, Joining of titanium/Stainless Steel by Explosive Welding and Effect on Interface, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2005, 169, p 127–133

  35. 35.

    C. Luo, W. Liang, Z. Chen, J. Zhang, C. Chi, and F. Yang, Effect of High Temperature Annealing and Subsequent Hot Rolling on Microstructural Evolution at the Bond-Interface of Al/Mg/Al Alloy Laminated Composites, Mater. Charact., 2013, 84, p 34–40

  36. 36.

    F. Liu, D. Ren, and L. Liu, Effect of Al Foils Interlayer on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Al Butt Joints Welded by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Filling with Zn Filler Metal, Mater. Des., 2013, 46, p 419–425

  37. 37.

    Y. He, W.M. Yue, S.H. Zhang, J.P. Dai, Z.Q. Li, Z.C. Liu, W.M. Pan, X.Y. Lu, SRF Cavities for ADS Project in China, in Proceedings of International Conference on SRF2013, 2013 (Paris), p 868–872

  38. 38.

    Y. Li and Z.S. Wu, Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of 2205/AZ31B Laminates Fabricated by Explosive Welding, Metals, 2015, 7, p 125

  39. 39.

    M.L. Martin, J.A. Fenske, G.S. Liu, P. Sofronis, and I.M. Robertson, On the Formation and Nature of Quasi-Cleavage Fracture Surfaces in Hydrogen Embrittled Steels, Acta Mater., 2011, 59, p 1601–1606

  40. 40.

    M. Acarer, B. Gülenç, and F. Findik, Investigation of Explosive Welding Parameters and Their Effects on Microhardness and Shear Strength, Mater. Des., 2003, 24, p 659–664

  41. 41.

    R. Kacar and M. Acarer, An Investigation on the Explosive Cladding of 316L Stainless Steel-Din-P355GH Steel, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2004, 152, p 91–96

  42. 42.

    K. Ishio, K. Kikuchi, J. Kusano, M. Mizumoto. K. Mukugi, A. Naito, N. Ouchi and Y. Tsuchiya, Fracture Toughness and Mechanical Properties of Pure Niobium and Welded Joints for Superconducting Cavities at 4 K, in Proceedings of 9th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, 1999 (New Mexico), p 319–323

Download references


This work was supported by the Key Research Project of Frontier Science from Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. QYZDY-SSW-JSC019), the Fund of Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11622217), and the National Key Project of Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development (Grant No. 11327802).

Author information

Correspondence to Xingyi Zhang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, R., Tan, T., He, Y. et al. The Interface Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Niobium-316L Stainless Steel Explosively Welded Composite Plate. J. of Materi Eng and Perform (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-020-04623-1

Download citation


  • 316L stainless steel
  • explosive welding
  • interface microstructure
  • mechanical properties
  • niobium