Effect of Process Parameters on Microstructure and Dynamic Compressive Property of Ti-6Al-4V Plates Fabricated via Friction Stir Welding

  • Bao Jiawei
  • Yang Ting
  • Yang SuyuanEmail author


The microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V plates (thickness: 5 mm) welded via friction stir welding (rotation speed: 150-300 rpm, welding speed: 70-100 mm/min) were investigated. The microstructural investigation revealed that the nugget obtained at 150 rpm and 70 mm/min was composed of a mixed structure, whereas the other weld joints were composed of a fully lamellar structure. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that fine recrystallized α-grains and dislocations occurred in the lamellar structure. The tensile tests showed that the tensile strength of all joints reached 96% of the tensile strength characterizing the base material. Moreover, the failure strain of each joint during tensile testing was > 13%. The weld joints with fully lamellar nuggets exhibited better dynamic compressive properties than the joints with mixed-structure nuggets. The results demonstrated that the recrystallized α-grains and dislocations are beneficial for enhancing the dynamic mechanical properties. The optimum dynamic mechanical response was obtained when a rotation speed and welding speed of 300 rpm and 100 mm/min, respectively, were employed as the welding parameters.


dynamic compressive property friction stir welding microstructure Ti-6Al-4V 



This study is financially supported by “The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51571031).” We thank Liwen Bianji, Edanz Editing China (, for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    G. Çam, Friction Stir Welded Structural Materials: Beyond Al-Alloys, Int. Mater. Rev., 2013, 56(1), p 1-48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Nandan, T. Debroy, and H. Bhadeshia, Recent Advances in Friction-Stir Welding—Process, Weldment Structure and Properties, Prog. Mater Sci., 2008, 53(6), p 980–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.S. Mishra and Z.Y. Ma, Friction Stir Welding and Processing, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep., 2005, 50(1–2), p 1–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Suyuan, Z. Hongran, T. Yishi, and Y. Ying, Microstructure and Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Magnesium Rare Earth Alloy, Chin. J. Rare Met., 2013, 37(1), p 33–37Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Yang Suyuan, Dongdong, Status and Prospect of Friction Stir Welding of Magnesium Alloys, Chin. J. Rare Met., 2014, 38(5), p 896–904Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Zhou, H.J. Liu, and Q.W. Liu, Effect of Process Parameters on Stir Zone Microstructure in Ti–6Al–4V Friction Stir Welds, J. Mater. Sci., 2009, 45(1), p 39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Zhou, H.J. Liu, P. Liu, and Q.W. Liu, The Stir Zone Microstructure and Its Formation Mechanism in Ti–6Al–4V Friction Stir Welds, Scr. Mater., 2009, 61(6), p 596–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Zhou, H.J. Liu, and Q.W. Liu, Effect of Rotation Speed on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti–6Al–4V Friction Stir Welded Joints, Mater. Des., 2010, 31(5), p 2631–2636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H.J. Liu, L. Zhou, and Q.W. Liu, Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Ti–6Al–4V Titanium Alloy, Mater. Des., 2010, 31(3), p 1650–1655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H.-J. Liu and L. Zhou, Microstructural Zones and Tensile Characteristics of Friction Stir Welded Joint of TC4 Titanium Alloy, Trans. Nonferr. Met. Soc. China, 2010, 20(10), p 1873–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Edwards and M. Ramulu, Identification of Process Parameters for Friction Stir Welding Ti–6Al–4V, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 2010, 132(3), p 031006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Ramulu, P.D. Edwards, D.G. Sanders, A.P. Reynolds, and T. Trapp, Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded and Friction Stir Welded-Superplastically Formed Ti–6Al–4V Butt Joints, Mater. Des., 2010, 31(6), p 3056–3061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Edwards and M. Ramulu, Peak Temperatures during Friction Stir Welding of Ti–6Al–4V, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2013, 15(6), p 468–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Edwards and M. Ramulu, Fatigue Performance of Friction Stir Welded Titanium Structural Joints, Int. J. Fatigue, 2015, 70, p 171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Edwards and M. Ramulu, Fatigue Performance of Friction Stir Welded Ti–6Al–4V Subjected to Various Post Weld Heat Treatment Temperatures, Int. J. Fatigue, 2015, 75, p 19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D.G. Sanders, P. Edwards, A.M. Cantrell, K. Gangwar, and M. Ramulu, Friction Stir-Welded Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V: Microstructure, Mechanical and Fracture Properties, JOM, 2015, 67(5), p 1054–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Z. Liu, Y. Wang, K. Yang, and D. Yan, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Rapidly Cooled Friction Stir Welded Ti-6Al-4V Alloys, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2018, 27(8), p 4244–4252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y.-J. Ko, K.-J. Lee, and K.-H. Baik, Effect of Tool Rotational Speed on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Friction Stir Welding Joints Within Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Sheets, Adv. Mech. Eng., 2017, 9(8), p 168781401770970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Liu and H. Fujii, Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of a Beta-Type Titanium Alloy Joint Fabricated by Friction Stir Welding, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2018, 711, p 140–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.H. Gao, Q.B. Fan, F.C. Wang, Y.P. Zhang, L.R. Huo, and C.H. Pei, Relationship between Dynamic Compressive Mechanical Properties and Ballistic Performance of Titanium Armor Materials, Rare Met. Mater. Eng., 2015, 44(11), p 2733–2736 ((Chinese))Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Mironov, Y.S. Sato, and H. Kokawa, Evaluation of Texture Developed in High-Temperature β-Phase during Friction Stir Welding of Ti-6Al-4V, Key Eng. Mater., 2012, 508, p 106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Esmaily, S. Nooshin Mortazavi, P. Todehfalah, and M. Rashidi, Microstructural Characterization and Formation of α′ Martensite Phase in Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Butt Joints Produced by Friction Stir and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Processes, Mater. Des., 2013, 47, p 143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Yoon, R. Ueji, and H. Fujii, Effect of Initial Microstructure on Ti–6Al–4V Joint by Friction Stir Welding, Mater. Des., 2015, 88, p 1269–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Yoon, R. Ueji, and H. Fujii, Effect of Rotation Rate on Microstructure and Texture Evolution during Friction Stir Welding of Ti–6Al–4V Plates, Mater. Charact., 2015, 106, p 352–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    X. Jiang, B.P. Wynne, and J. Martin, Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Stationary Shoulder Friction Stir Welded Ti6Al4V Alloy, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2015, 20(7), p 594–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Sharma, A.N. Majila, V.M. Chavan, D.C. Fernando, R.J. Patel, and S.N. Babu, Deformation Response of Titanium Alloy under Static and Dynamic Loading, Procedia Eng., 2017, 173, p 1894–1900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Yang, D. Wang, X. Zhu, and Q. Fan, Dynamic Compression-Induced Twins and Martensite and Their Combined Effects on the Adiabatic Shear Behavior in a Ti-8.5Cr-1.5Sn Alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2019, 759, p 203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Ran, P. Chen, L. Li, W. Zhang, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, High-Strain-Rate Plastic Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5 V-1Cr-1Fe Titanium Alloy at Room Temperature, Mech. Mater., 2018, 116, p 3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Edwin Raj, V. Parameswaran, and B.S.S. Daniel, Comparison of Quasi-static and Dynamic Compression Behavior of Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2009, 526(1–2), p 11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Kitamura, H. Fujii, Y. Iwata, Y.S. Sun, and Y. Morisada, Flexible Control of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Ti–6Al–4V Joints, Mater. Des., 2013, 46, p 348–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L.H. Wu, D. Wang, B.L. Xiao, and Z.Y. Ma, Microstructural Evolution of the Thermomechanically Affected Zone in a Ti–6Al–4V Friction Stir Welded Joint, Scr. Mater., 2014, 78–79, p 17–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M.Q. Peng, X.W. Cheng, C. Zheng, K.W. Yang, and D. Jin, Effects of Secondary alpha Phase Width on Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Sensitivity of Adiabatic Shear Banding in Bimodal Microstructures of TC4 Alloy, Rare Metal Mater. Eng., 2017, 46(7), p 1843–1849 ((Chinese))Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials under Shock and ImpactBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations