Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 1235–1252 | Cite as

Wear Resistance and Tribological Features of Ultra-Fine-Grained Al-Mg Alloys Processed by Constrained Groove Pressing-Cross Route

  • J. Mozafari
  • F. KhodabakhshiEmail author
  • H. Eskandari
  • M. Haghshenas


In the present study, the wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Al-Mg alloys produced by a severe plastic deformation (SPD) method was assessed and compared against the annealed coarse-grained alloy. To this end, weight loss, wear resistance, friction coefficient, and morphology of the worn surfaces was investigated. Constrained groove pressing-cross route (CGP-CR) process, an SPD technique, was implemented at ambient temperature up to two passes to impose an equivalent plastic strain of about 4.64. Formation of a UFG structure with an average sub-grain size of ~ 350 nm with an enhanced tensile strength of up to ~ 225 MPa and indentation hardness of up to ~ 95 HV were achieved upon two passes of CGP-CR process. The pin-on-disk dry wear sliding testing was conducted up to a distance of 1000 m under normal loads of 5, 7, and 9 N at a constant sliding speed of 0.5 m/s. The trends measured for the evaluation of wear properties/mechanisms are discussed based on the microstructural features and mechanical property of UFGed alloys. The results showed that by employing the CGP-CR process and through the formation of UFG structure, the wear resistance was considerably increased. This was even beyond two times (~ 100%) larger depending on the normal loading with the lowest coefficient of friction around 0.6. Observation and study of the morphology of the worn surfaces under field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed a change in the wear mechanism from sticking followed by formation of plastic deformation bands and delamination in the coarse-grained annealed alloy into a combined abrasive-adhesive behavior in the UFG material.


Al-Mg alloy constrained groove pressing-cross route (CGP-CR) fractography severe plastic deformation (SPD) ultra-fine-grained (UFG) wear resistance 

Supplementary material

11665_2019_3859_MOESM1_ESM.docx (185 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 185 kb)


  1. 1.
    R.Z. Valiev, R.K. Islamgaliev, and I.V. Alexandrov, Bulk Nanostructured Materials from Severe Plastic Deformation, Prog. Mater Sci., 2000, 45(2), p 103–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.Z. Valiev and T.G. Langdon, Principles of Equal-Channel Angular Pressing as a Processing Tool for Grain Refinement, Prog. Mater Sci., 2006, 51(7), p 881–981. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.C. Benedyk, 3-Aluminum Alloys for Lightweight Automotive Structures A2-Mallick, P.K, Materials, Design and Manufacturing for Lightweight Vehicles, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2010, p 79–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Khodabakhshi, A. Simchi, A.H. Kokabi, A.P. Gerlich, and M. Nosko, Effects of Stored Strain Energy on Restoration Mechanisms and Texture Components in an Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Prepared by Friction Stir Processing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, 642, p 204–214. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Khodabakhshi and M. Kazeminezhad, The Effect of Constrained Groove Pressing on Grain Size, Dislocation Density and Electrical Resistivity of Low Carbon Steel, Mater. Des., 2011, 32(6), p 3280–3286. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Khodabakhshi, M. Kazeminezhad, and A.H. Kokabi, Constrained Groove Pressing of Low Carbon Steel: Nano-Structure and Mechanical Properties, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2010, 527(16-17), p 4043–4049. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.K. Gupta, T.S. Maddukuri, and S.K. Singh, Constrained Groove Pressing for Sheet Metal Processing, Prog. Mater Sci., 2016, 84, p 403–462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Morattab, K. Ranjbar, and M. Reihanian, On the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Commercially Pure Al Fabricated by Semi-Constrained Groove Pressing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2011, 528(22–23), p 6912–6918. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Rafizadeh, A. Mani, and M. Kazeminezhad, The Effects of Intermediate and Post-Annealing Phenomena on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Constrained Groove Pressed Copper Sheet, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2009, 515(1–2), p 162–168. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.S. Satheesh Kumar and T. Raghu, Tensile Behaviour and Strain Hardening Characteristics of Constrained Groove Pressed Nickel Sheets, Mater. Des., 2011, 32(8–9), p 4650–4657. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    O. Unal, A. Cahit Karaoglanli, R. Varol, and A. Kobayashi, Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of Severe Shot Peened Commercially Pure Titanium, Vacuum, 2014, 110, p 202–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Khakbaz and M. Kazeminezhad, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Fracture Behavior of Severely Deformed Al-Mn Alloy Sheets, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2012, 532, p 26–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. Salvati, H. Zhang, K.S. Fong, R.J.H. Paynter, X. Song, and A.M. Korsunsky, Fatigue and Fracture Behaviour of AZ31b Mg Alloy Plastically Deformed by Constrained Groove Pressing in the Presence of Overloads, Procedia Struct. Integr., 2016, 2, p 3772–3781. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Moradpour, F. Khodabakhshi, and H. Eskandari, Dynamic Strain Aging Behavior of an Ultra-Fine Grained Al-Mg Alloy (AA5052) Processed via Classical Constrained Groove Pressing, J. Mater. Res. Technol., 2018, Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. Khodabakhshi and M. Kazeminezhad, The Annealing Phenomena and Thermal Stability of Severely Deformed Steel Sheet, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2011, 528(15), p 5212–5218. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Khodabakhshi and M. Kazeminezhad, Differential Scanning Calorimetry Study of Constrained Groove Pressed Low Carbon Steel: Recovery, Recrystallisation and Ferrite to Austenite Phase Transformation, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30(7), p 765–773. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    F. Khodabakhshi, M. Kazeminezhad, and A.H. Kokabi, Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Resistance Spot Welded Severely Deformed Low Carbon Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2011, 529, p 237–245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Khodabakhshi, M. Kazeminezhad, and A.H. Kokabi, Resistance Spot Welding of Ultra-Fine Grained Steel Sheets Produced By Constrained Groove Pressing: Optimization and Characterization, Mater. Charact., 2012, 69, p 71–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Khodabakhshi, M. Abbaszadeh, H. Eskandari, and S.R. Mohebpour, Application of CGP-Cross Route Process for Microstructure Refinement and Mechanical Properties Improvement in Steel Sheets, J. Manuf. Process., 2013, 15(4), p 533–541. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    F. Khodabakhshi, M. Abbaszadeh, S.R. Mohebpour, and H. Eskandari, 3D Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Validation of Constrained Groove Pressing–Cross Route as an SPD Process for Sheet Form Metals, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 2014, 73(9), p 1291–1305. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Moradpour, F. Khodabakhshi, and H. Eskandari, Microstructure–Mechanical Property Relationship in an Al–Mg Alloy Processed by Constrained Groove Pressing-Cross Route, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34(8), p 1003–1017. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Gao, C.T. Wang, R.J.K. Wood, and T.G. Langdon, Tribological Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Materials Processed by Severe Plastic Deformation, J. Mater. Sci., 2012, 47(12), p 4779–4797. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.I.A.E. Aal and H.S. Kim, Wear Properties of High Pressure Torsion Processed Ultrafine Grained Al–7%Si Alloy, Mater. Des., 2014, 53, p 373–382. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. Purcek, H. Yanar, D.V. Shangina, M. Demirtas, N.R. Bochvar, and S.V. Dobatkin, Influence of High Pressure Torsion-Induced Grain Refinement and Subsequent Aging on Tribological Properties of Cu-Cr-Zr alloy, J. Alloys Compd., 2018, 742, p 325–333. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    İ. Çelik, A. Alsaran, and G. Purcek, Effect of Different Surface Oxidation Treatments on Structural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Titanium, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2014, 258, p 842–848. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. Purcek, H. Yanar, O. Saray, I. Karaman, and H.J. Maier, Effect of Precipitation on Mechanical and Wear Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy, Wear, 2014, 311(1), p 149–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Purcek, O. Saray, O. Kul, I. Karaman, G.G. Yapici, M. Haouaoui, and H.J. Maier, Mechanical and Wear Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Pure Ti Produced By Multi-Pass Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2009, 517(1), p 97–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Purcek, I. Karaman, G.G. Yapici, M. Al-Maharbi, T. Kuçukomeroglu, and O. Saray, Enhancement in Mechanical Behavior and Wear Resistance of Severe Plastically Deformed Two-Phase Zn–Al alloys, Int. J. Mater. Res., 2007, 98(4), p 332–338. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C.T. Wang, N. Gao, M.G. Gee, R.J.K. Wood, and T.G. Langdon, Processing of an Ultrafine-Grained Titanium By High-Pressure Torsion: An Evaluation of the Wear Properties with and Without a TiN Coating, J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 2013, 17, p 166–175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A.P. Zhilyaev, I. Shakhova, A. Belyakov, R. Kaibyshev, and T.G. Langdon, Wear Resistance and Electroconductivity in Copper Processed by Severe Plastic Deformation, Wear, 2013, 305(1–2), p 89–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Gode, H. Yilmazer, I. Ozdemir, and Y. Todaka, Microstructural Refinement and Wear Property of Al–Si–Cu Composite Subjected to Extrusion and High-Pressure Torsion, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2014, 618, p 377–384. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    E. Avcu, The Influences of ECAP on the Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of AA7075 Aluminium Alloy, Tribol. Int., 2017, 110, p 173–184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Chegini, A. Fallahi, and M.H. Shaeri, Effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) on Wear Behavior of Al-7075 Alloy, Procedia Mater. Sci., 2015, 11, p 95–100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    E. Darmiani, I. Danaee, M.A. Golozar, M.R. Toroghinejad, A. Ashrafi, and A. Ahmadi, Reciprocating Wear Resistance of Al–SiC Nano-Composite Fabricated by Accumulative Roll Bonding Process, Mater. Des., 2013, 50, p 497–502. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. Jamaati, M. Naseri, and M.R. Toroghinejad, Wear Behavior of Nanostructured Al/Al2O3 Composite Fabricated via Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) Process, Mater. Des., 2014, 59, p 540–549. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Ebrahimi, S. Attarilar, F. Djavanroodi, C. Gode, and H.S. Kim, Wear Properties of Brass Samples Subjected to Constrained Groove Pressing Process, Mater. Des., 2014, 63, p 531–537. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    F. Khodabakhshi, A. Simchi, A.H. Kokabi, M. Sadeghahmadi, and A.P. Gerlich, Reactive Friction Stir Processing of AA 5052–TiO2 Nanocomposite: Process–Microstructure–Mechanical Characteristics, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31(4), p 426–435. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    ASTM standard E8M, Tension Testing of Metallic Materials. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, West Conshohocken, 1998Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    ASTM standard G99–04, Standard Test Method for Wear Testing with a Pin-on-Disk Apparatus, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    F. Khodabakhshi, A. Simchi, and A. Kokabi, Surface Modifications of an Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Through Reactive Stir Friction Processing with Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Sliding Wear Resistance, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 309, p 114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    F. Khodabakhshi, M. Kazeminezhad, and A.H. Kokabi, On the Failure Behavior of Highly Cold Worked Low Carbon Steel Resistance Spot Welds, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2014, 45(3), p 1376–1389. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    F. Khodabakhshi, M. Kazeminezhad, and A.H. Kokabi, Metallurgical Characteristics and Failure Mode Transition for Dissimilar Resistance Spot Welds Between Ultra-Fine Grained and Coarse-Grained Low Carbon Steel Sheets, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, 637, p 12–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M.I. Abd El Aal, N. El Mahallawy, F.A. Shehata, M. Abd El Hameed, E.Y. Yoon, and H.S. Kim, Wear Properties of ECAP-Processed Ultrafine Grained Al-Cu Alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2010, 527(16–17), p 3726–3732. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    H.S. Arora, H. Singh, and B.K. Dhindaw, Wear Behaviour of a Mg Alloy Subjected to Friction Stir Processing, Wear, 2013, 303(1–2), p 65–77. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. Li, J. Wongsa-Ngam, J. Xu, D. Shan, B. Guo, and T.G. Langdon, Wear Resistance of an Ultrafine-Grained Cu-Zr Alloy Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing, Wear, 2015, 326–327, p 10–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    N. Hansen, Hall–Petch Relation And Boundary Strengthening, Scr. Mater., 2004, 51(8), p 801–806. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Elmadagli, T. Perry, and A.T. Alpas, A Parametric Study of the Relationship Between Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Al-Si Alloys, Wear, 2007, 262(1), p 79–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. Shafiei-Zarghani, S.F. Kashani-Bozorg, and A.Z. Hanzaki, Wear Assessment of Al/Al2O3 Nano-Composite Surface Layer Produced Using Friction Stir Processing, Wear, 2011, 270(5–6), p 403–412. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    F. Ren, S.N. Arshad, P. Bellon, R.S. Averback, M. Pouryazdan, and H. Hahn, Sliding Wear-Induced Chemical Nanolayering in Cu-Ag, and Its Implications for High Wear Resistance, Acta Mater., 2014, 72, p 148–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    G. Purcek, O. Saray, F. Rubitschek, T. Niendorf, H.J. Maier, and I. Karaman, Effect Of Internal Oxidation on Wear Behavior of Ultrafine-Grained Nb-Zr, Acta Mater., 2011, 59(20), p 7683–7694. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Mozafari
    • 1
  • F. Khodabakhshi
    • 2
    Email author
  • H. Eskandari
    • 1
  • M. Haghshenas
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPersian Gulf UniversityBushehrIran
  2. 2.School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of North DakotaGrand ForksUSA

Personalised recommendations