Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 11, pp 6669–6681 | Cite as

Softening Behavior of Electron Beam Welded 22SiMn2TiB Steel

  • Junqiang Xu
  • Yong PengEmail author
  • Shun Guo
  • Qi ZhouEmail author
  • Jun Zhu
  • Xiaopeng Li


Softening behavior occurs in heat-affected zone of many types of high strength steels causing the deterioration of mechanical properties. In this study, the softening behavior of 22SiMn2TiB joint was revealed by experimental and numerical analysis. The microstructure and hardness of the joint were tested and analyzed. The numerical simulations of the temperature field were carried out to obtain the thermal cycle. Based on the continuous cooling transformation diagram, the phase transformation was investigated. The results indicated that the microhardness in the HAZ was significantly decreased, and its minimum value was 273 HV which was 63.5% of base metal. The softening behavior occurs in intermediate critical heat-affected zone and the subcritical heat-affected zone, and its peak temperature is between 853.7 °C (Ac3) and 450 °C. When 22SiMn2TiB steel was heated above 732.3 °C (Ac1), martensite begins to transform into austenite. With different cooling rates, austenite may transform into martensite, bainite and ferrite, and the volume fraction of soft phases could increase resulting in the softening. When the peak temperature is between 732.3 and 450 °C, the recovery phenomenon and the decomposition of martensite caused softening with the decrease in the dislocation density and martensite.


22SiMn2TiB steel electron beam welding microstructure evolution numerical simulation softening behavior 



This work is funded by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant Nos. 51505226, 51375243).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringNanjing University of Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.Nanjing Institute of TechnologyNanjingChina

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