Gating System Design Optimization for Investment Casting Process

  • Marek BrunaEmail author
  • Dana Bolibruchová
  • Richard Pastirčák
  • Anna Remišová


This article aims to optimize specific castings, characterized as an element of the continuous track for armored vehicle. During the primary melts, defects in the form of oxide films and shrinkage porosity occurred. Steel 20ChGSNM described by the Russian GOST standard was used as a batch material, and the investment casting method was selected for production. To eliminate the above-mentioned defects, only changes in the gating system were allowed, because the interference with an ongoing production regarding technical and technological parameters was unacceptable by the manufacturer. Numerical simulation, x-ray, macro-structural and micro-structural analysis were used during the optimization process. The three variants were analyzed, and the achieved results demonstrated that it is possible to significantly affect the casting internal homogeneity by modifying the gating system individual parts. The final variant ensured a decrease in defects by up to 90% and the production of casting having the quality required by the customer.


casting and solidification gating system microscopy numerical simulation steel 



The article was created as part of the VEGA Grant Agency Project: 1/0706/18. The authors thank the agency for their support.


  1. 1.
    Q. Pei, B. Liu, X. Yu, H. Guo, and G. Chen, A Computer-Aided-Design System for Optimizing Risering and Gating Design of Steel Castings, Proc. Int. Conf. CAD of Mach., 1991, 16–20, p 256–261Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Yang, S. Li, F. He, W. Sung, J. Kao, and R. Chen, Twin Gating System Design for Typical Thin Wall Stainless Steel Castings Based on Fast Pouring Mechanism, Front. Mech. Eng. Mater. Eng. II, 2014, 457–458, p 1657–1660Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Hawranek, J. Lelito, J. Suchy, and P. Zak, The Simulation of a Liquid Cast Iron Flow Through the Gating System with Filter, Arch. Metall. Mater., 2009, 2(54), p 351–358Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Huang and C. Lin, Computer-Aided Modeling and Experimental Verification of Optimal Gating System Design for Investment Casting of Precision Rotor, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 2015, 5–8(79), p 997–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Modaresi, A. Safikhani, A. Noohi, N. Hamidnezhad, and S. Maki, Gating System Design and Simulation of Gray Iron Casting to Eliminate Oxide Layers Caused by Turbulence, Int. J. Metalcast., 2017, 2(11), p 328–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Campbell, Stop Pouring, Start Casting, Int. J. Metalcast., 2012, 3(6), p 7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.K. Kuo, P.H. Huang, H.Y. Lai, and J.R. Chen, Optimal Gating System Design for Investment Casting of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Enclosed Impeller by Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 2017, 92(1–4), p 1093–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Camek, P. Lichy, I. Kroupova, J. Duda, J. Beno, M. Korbas, F. Radkovsky, and S. Bliznyukov, Effect of Cast Steel Production Metallurgy on the Emergence of Casting Defects, Metalurgija, 2016, 55(4), p 701–704Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Z. Ignaszak, Discussion on Usability of the Niyama Criterion for Porosity Predicting in Cast Iron Castings, Arch. Foundry Eng., 2017, 17(3), p 196–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Campbell, Sixty Years of Casting Research, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2015, 46A(11), p 4848–4853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Jiang, Y. He, Y. He, X. Qian, Y. Huang, L. Xu, W. Tian, and E. Mao, Analysis and Optimization on the Gating System of Aluminum Alloy Piston in Casting, Appl. Mech. Mater., 2011, 80–81, p 32–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marek Bruna
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dana Bolibruchová
    • 1
  • Richard Pastirčák
    • 1
  • Anna Remišová
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Technological Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of ZilinaŽilinaSlovak Republic

Personalised recommendations